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Chapter 11 Stimulants: Cocaine, Amphetamines, and Caffeine.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 11 Stimulants: Cocaine, Amphetamines, and Caffeine."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 11 Stimulants: Cocaine, Amphetamines, and Caffeine

2 COCAINE  NATURALLY OCCURRING DRUG WITH LOCAL ANESTHETIC PROPERTIES  COMES FROM THE LEAVES OF THE COCA BUSH  ADMINISTRATION: SNORTING

3 Cocaine: Historical Perspectives  Chewing Coca leaves was popular among Inca Civilizations  Ancient Inca records indicate that coca chewing was appreciated for increased strength and stamina to workers  Coca was used to measure time and distance (mouthfuls of coca leaves)

4 Cocaine: Historical Perspectives 1859’s - German chemist, Alfred Nieman isolated cocaine Vin Mariani (wine with cocaine)

5 Cocaine: Historical Perspectives Freud used cocaine to “cure” morphine addiction - Freud himself became dependent upon cocaine John Pemberton took out alcohol added soda water, syrup from kola nut, and caffeine to produce Coca- cola

6 Cocaine: Historical Perspectives Late 1800’s negative public reaction to cocaine 1914 Harrison Narcotic Act was enacted and non-medical use of cocaine drecreased 1970’s – recreational use of cocaine again became popular

7 LOW DOSES  INCREASED HEART RATE  INCREASED BLOOD PRESSURE  DECREASE IN FATIGUE  INCREASE IN MENTAL ALERTNESS  INCREASED SOCIABILITY

8 HIGH DOSES  NERVOUSNESS  DIZZINESS, BLURRED VISION  VOMITING, TREMORS  REPRESSION OF HEART ENZYMES  CONVULSIONS  DEATH

9 COCAINE EUPHORIA  SHORT-LIVED EUPHORIA  MINUTE “HIGH”  “CRASHING”

10 LONG TERM USE  INFECTIONS OF THE NASAL SEPTUM  COCAINE PSYCHOSIS  FORMICATION (COCAINE BUGS)

11 FREEBASE FORMS  PURIFIED FORMS OF COCAINE  “FREEBASING”  CRACK

12 CRACK  IMPURITIES FROM COCAINE REMOVED  SOLD IN TINY CHIPS AND SMOKED  HAS 10 TIMES THE IMPACT OF COCAINE

13 EFFECTS OF CRACK  MINUTE HIGH WITHIN 10 SECONDS OF ADMINISTRATION  CRASHING INCLUDES PROFOUND DEPRESSION AND NAUSEA  UP AND DOWN CYCLE REINFORCES CRAVING

14 AMPHETAMINES POWERFUL SYNTHETIC STIMULANT FIRST SYNTHESIZED IN LATE 1800’s USED MEDICALLY IN 1930’s for RAISING BLOOD PRESSURE AND ASTHMA ALSO USED IN WW2 BY JAPAN AND GERMANY

15 Amphetamines are similar to the neurotransmitters norepinephrine and dopamine

16 Effects Psychological -euphoria -restlessness -agitation -confusion -paranoia -hallucinations

17  Physical Effects Dry mouth High blood pressure Tremors Tinnitus Convulsions Cardiac arrest

18 The physical and psychological effects of amphetamines can last for hours and the “crashing” can also last for hours

19 Medical Uses for Amphetamines  Narcolepsy  Depression  Weight Loss  ADHD

20 Ritalin  Americans consume over 90% of the world’s Ritalin  More than 4 million American children take Ritalin  Ritalin has a high safety record

21 Ritalin Dosage  A low dosage of Ritalin helps the child’s cognitive processing  Enhances functioning of the RAS

22 Problems with Ritalin  Adverse effects include Insomnia Weight loss Headahces Irritability Nausea Dizziness

23 Diversion of Ritalin  Ritalin is an amphetamine cogener so it can produce a powerful stimulant effect for someone using it recreationally  Ritalin is a popular stimulant that is diverted from medical to recreational use

24 Xanthines XANTHINES ARE NATURALLY OCCURRING STIMULANTS AND INCLUDE CAFFEINE THEOPHYLLINE THEOBROMINE

25 Coffee is the major source for caffeine Tea is a the major source for theophylline Chocolate is the major source for theobromine

26 Caffeine  Caffeine is the world’s most frequently consumed stimulant  The effects at moderate levels are cerebral stimulation, increased blood pressure, increased body temperature, and decreased appetite

27  LONG-TERM EFFECTS NO SERIOUS EFFECTS CONTRAINDICATED WITH PREGNANCY, HEADACHES, DIGESTIVE PROBLEMS, PANIC DISORDERS

28 CAFFEINISM DEFINED: ACUTE OR CHRONIC OVERUSE OF CAFFEINE RESULTING IN DEPENDENCE AND/OR STIMULANT USE SYMPTOMS

29 CAFFEINISM SYMPTOMS RESTLESSNESS NERVOUSNESS EXCITEMENT INSOMNIA EXCESSIVE DIURESIS GI COMPLAINTS

30 CAFFEINISM SYMPTOMS MUSCLE TWITCHING RAMBLING FLOW OF THOUGHT/SPEECH CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIA

31 Summary  Cocaine is a naturally occurring drug with local anesthetic properties  High does of cocaine can result in death  Long term use of cocaine has negative medical consequences  Crack is a freebase form of cocaine

32  Amphetamines are powerful prescription stimulants, commonly referred to as “speed”  Ritalin is an amphetamine used in treating ADHD  Caffeine is a cerebral stimulant  Caffeinism results from an overdose of caffeine


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