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Mr. Orlando NK HO & Dr. Joe T. Y. LO 17 th December, 2010 1.

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Presentation on theme: "Mr. Orlando NK HO & Dr. Joe T. Y. LO 17 th December, 2010 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 Mr. Orlando NK HO & Dr. Joe T. Y. LO 17 th December, 2010 1

2 1. Context: “ Preparing Students for the New Senior Secondary Liberal Studies: A School-based Approach to Enhancing Enquiry Learning at Key Stage 3” 2. NSS LS: Knowledge as co-construction (interaction) 3. The schools’ initiative for enquiry learning 4. The use of small groups in teaching 5. Some small groups are not learning effectively, because… 6. The relevance of ZPD as a guiding notion 7. ZPD in the context of an enquiry lesson 8. Concluding remarks 2

3 Sense of ownership Enhanced social awareness Widened perspectives Higher order skills Value clarification Knowledge co- construction …. Changes in Learning & Teaching Changes in teachers’ knowledge & beliefs Changes in students’ learning outcomes Diagnosing school needs Professional support Continual development 3

4  curriculum = textbook ?  content-based → concept-/issue-based  accumulation of knowledge > spiral deepening in conceptualization; transferability of learning (e.g. A/S/K) to newly emergent circumstances/ looping on….  Practically, it means: Learners – to enquire about something (not merely listening/ reciting/ remembering, etc.) INSTEAD of being TOLD something. 4 perennial spontaneous

5  Enquiry learning: Learners taking the initiative to search for knowledge and is a process attempting to solve a problem A teaching strategy or schema to activate a series of self-directed questioning in learners in relation to a problem and the construction of knowledge thereof.  Examples: a. Project learning, scientific enquiry, field visits, etc. b. Data collecting/ & collection skills c. Interviews/ surveys/ questionnaires d. Classification of data collected e. Activities in class/ chalk & talk f. Linking learning with life experience g. Oral/ written reports h. Small groups/ discussion i. …. 5

6  This means: … a. Random/ planned grouping b. In pairs/ in groups in 4 or 5 c. One-off grouping/ durable grouping d. Student initiated/ teacher controlled e. Structured/ unstructured roles in group f. Seating methods/ “experts’ plenary”  …. a. deviating from content-based textbooks b. learners physically moving around c. noise (talk), discipline… d. tasks, and what else …? 6

7  Learners are not engaged (not on task) a. no real issue to discuss/ confront (relevantly demanding, interesting and meaningful) b. no self-confidence to explore & to express c. no concepts/ framework to use d. marks/ assessment rubrics do not reflect enquiry as a priority e. school/ class culture also counts f. ….  Teachers: a. time constraints b. lack of experience in teaching students’ to enquire c. students have little previous experience of enquiry learning d. dare not/ do not set goals which “beyond” their estimation of learners’ present capabilities, due to: e. [From the young learners’ perspectives:] What is it? What is my stand? What language/ concept is relevant? Who am I? f. Relationship between first and subsequent loops of learning: “do right things”  “do things right” based on experience of previous loop of learning 7

8 Learning from the interactionist theoretical perspective = a process centering around a situated issue/ problem, entangling all the 3 vertex- parameters below Learning = a function of the human consciousness. ZPD = a platform where consciousness shows its developmental stages through performance or emergent impacts in social interactions 8 Self/ consciousness Social interactions Language & knowledge Issues/ problems receiving attention situated in a socio-cultural context (e.g. historical cultural traditions/ circumstances) real issues, group work, social skills … concepts, framework… values, beliefs, identity…

9  A teacher is to assist students to move across series of ZPDs, to develop (such as through scaffolding).  Vygotsky: “It [ZPD] is the distance between the actual developmental level as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as through problem solving under adult guidance or in collaboration with more capable peers.”  That is: “The difference between what the child, or novice, is capable of when acting alone and what he or she is capable of when acting under the guidance of a more experienced other is referred to ….” 9 A child/ learner can do this acting alone Future potential development ZONE of Proximal Development Teacher’s Scaffolding

10  ZPD implies: 1. Teachers to consciously and persistently ask & assist learners to aim at and to do something beyond their present (and limited!) capabilities. 2. Spiral scaffolding, tailored to the developmental needs of the learners; and scaffolding – covering (i) social interactions; (ii) language & knowledge; (iii) values & beliefs, etc.  Generally, it means: a. sufficient wait time: Teachers don’t do what learners can do/ ought to do b. don’t be scared about “dead air” c. assorting learning tasks in spiral progression of difficulty d. foresee & understand what learners need to cross ZPD e. ensure meaningful and supportive social interactions in class f. providing kits/ resources to help students to cross the ZPD through social interactions g. let them talk! h. design enquiry-based lessons & learning materials accordingly i..... forever looping forward onto the next ZPD in spiral progression 10

11 11 Raising the Question Data search Generation of new ideas Discussion/ exchange Learner’s reflection Issues/ problems receiving attention situated in a socio-cultural context (e.g. historical cultural traditions/ circumstances)

12 Familiarization about relevant concepts and revisiting their interrelationship Multiple perspective consciousness e.g. varied stakeholders, varied disciplinary perspective, varied time span, evaluating reasons and considerations, varied contexts, varied methods and data sources & triangulation Value clarification & conflict resolution Thinking & learning tools e.g. school-based project learning Handbook, 5-W & 1-H, Know-Want-Learn Chart, Keep-Improve-Start- Stop, etc. Multi-sensory approach 4 Fs – Fact, Find, Feel, Future Dialogic enquiry Textual enquiry Continual assessment (e.g. peer assessment), assessment for learning, interest in the process of enquiry, etc. 12

13 a. Transfer of abilities > transfer of responsibilities b. Lead onto enquiry > standardized learning c. “Concluding” views/ judgment/ solutions: transitory > permanent …  Real issues to explore/ enquire about – aim a bit higher and beyond present capabilities of the learners  Help learners to familiarize with the necessary concepts, and show how one may use them  Build/ provide mental organizer (to relate concepts)  Introduce/ generate conceptual lens/ theoretical framework (as conceptual lenses)  Don’t accept learners’ outcomes at their first intellectual stop, spur them to revisit and to reconstruct further  Prompt learners towards value clarification & conflict resolution  Teachers should be ready/ prepared to give critique to/ to question learners (when they first stop in their enquiry)  The role of learner reflection  Of course, … link up to assignment design & assessment rubrics…. 13

14 Globalization: A > B; B > A; A <> B Traditional gender roles:

15 A ZPD-conscious enquiry lesson:  A theme/ a direction for the lesson to develop;  Embedded challenging learner-centered learning opportunities with sufficient and relevant scaffolds;  Debriefing – the contours covered in course of the enquiry:  S – space  P – positive orientation  A – attentive listening  C – choice  E – exchange 15

16 Relevance of ZPD in teaching small groups for the purpose enquiry learning : It depends, & relevant especially for and where one expects social interactionist view of knowledge to apply Misuse of ZPD in teaching small groups for the purpose enquiry learning : - “under demanding”, - “under/ improper scaffolding”, & - “over demanding” (8) Concluding remarks 16

17 Effective application of ZPD in teaching small groups for the purpose enquiry learning: * ZPD-awareness in enquiry lesson design, teaching methods, learning outcomes & assessment, etc. * Yet, what next? Perfection is a never ending business: The way forward/ the loop forward is/ The next ZPD is: - a second-loop learning based on students’ reflective metacognition. - If the first-loop learning has been to guide students to “do right things”, in the second-loop learning, they should be encouraged to”do things right” based on the knowledge and experiences acquired from the first-loop learning. - Ideal scaffolding should be more than on-off learning task… - Continual improvement in enquiry learning needs to extend beyond just one single lesson. - This “What next?” is a sensible question for school leaders to ask, in their specific school context.. (8) Concluding remarks 17

18 Thank you for the listening… The End. 18

19 Kipling, R. (1902). The just so stories: The elephant's child Jan Knowlton. Retrieved from Kiewra, K. A. (2009). Teaching how to learn: The teacher's guide to student success. Singapore : Corwin Press. Massialas, B. G. (1996). Criteria for issues-centred content selection. In W. E. Ronald and W. S. David (Eds.). Handbook on teaching social issues (pp. 44-50). Washington, DC: National Council for the Social Studies. Ogle, D. (1986). K-W-L: A teaching model that develops active reading of expository text. The Reading Teacher, 39(6), 564-570. Raths, L. E., Harmin, M., & Simon, S. B. (1978). Values and teaching: Working with values in the classroom (2nd ed.). Columbus, OH: C. E. Merrill Pub. Co. Suchman, J. R. (1961). Inquiry training: Building skills for autonomous discovery. Merrill-Palmer Quaterly of Behavior Development, 7, 147-169. Suchman, J. R. (1966) Developing Inquiry. Chicago, IL: Science Research Associates, Inc. Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. 林進材( 2000 )。《有效教學 — 理論與策略》。台北:五南圖書出版公司。 林德成( 2001 )。探究教學法。輯於霍秉坤、余慧明、陳健生、李偉成、陳錦榮與林德成編《教學:方法及 設計》,頁 107-116 。香港︰香港教育學院。 林寶山( 2003 )。《實用教學原理》。台北︰心理出版社。 …. 19

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