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 George Washington; Federalist (1788)  John Adams; Federalist (1796)  Thomas Jefferson (1800)  James Madison (1808)  James Monroe (1816)  John Quincy.

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Presentation on theme: " George Washington; Federalist (1788)  John Adams; Federalist (1796)  Thomas Jefferson (1800)  James Madison (1808)  James Monroe (1816)  John Quincy."— Presentation transcript:

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2  George Washington; Federalist (1788)  John Adams; Federalist (1796)  Thomas Jefferson (1800)  James Madison (1808)  James Monroe (1816)  John Quincy Adams (1824)  Andrew Jackson; Democrat (1828)  Martin Van Buren; Democrat (1836)  William Henry Harrison; Whig (1840)  John Tyler; Whig (1841)  James K. Polk; Democrat (1844)  Zachary Taylor; Whig (1848)  Millard Fillmore; Whig (1850)  Franklin Pierce; Democrat (1852)  James Buchanan; Democrat (1856)  Abraham Lincoln; Republican (1860)  Andrew Johnson; Democrat (1865)  Ulysses S. Grant; Republican (1868)  Rutherford B. Hayes; Republican (1876)  James Garfield; Republican (1880) #21 - …  Chester A. Arthur; Republican (1881)  Grover Cleveland; Democrat (1884)  Benjamin Harrison; Republican (1888)  Grover Cleveland; Democrat (1892)  William McKinley; Republican (1896)  Theodore Roosevelt; Republican (1901)  William Howard Taft; Republican (1908)  Woodrow Wilson; Democrat (1912)  Warren G. Harding; Republican (1920)  Calvin Coolidge; Republican (1923)  Herbert Hoover; Republican (1928)  Franklin D. Roosevelt; Democrat (1932)

3 America: Pathways to the Present Chapter 22 Crash and Depression (1929–1933)

4  CORE OBJECTIVE: Analyze the causes and effects of the Great Depression  Objective 6.1: What were the main causes of the Great Depression?  Objective 6.2: Describe the social problems and struggles created by poverty during the Depression.  Objective 6.3: How did Americans pull together to survive the Great Depression?  Objective 6.4: Analyze the differences between President Hoover’s response to the Great Depression and Franklin Roosevelt’s promise for change.  THEME:

5 America: Pathways to the Present Section 1: The Stock Market Crash Section 2: Social Effects of the Depression Section 3: Surviving the Great Depression Section 4: The Election of 1932 Chapter 22: Crash and Depression (1929–1933)

6 When the economy…

7  Throughout the country, people pulled together to help one another.  Neighbors in difficult circumstances helped those they saw as worse off than themselves.  When banks foreclosed a farm, neighbor farmers would bid pennies on land, and then return to the owners. These are penny auctions.  Some Americans called for radical change; SOCIALISM & COMMUNISM  They believed that a fairer distribution of wealth would help to end the hard times.  Jokes and humor helped many people to fight everyday despair.

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10  Prohibition Is Repealed  In February 1933, Congress passed the Twenty-first Amendment, which repealed the eighteenth amendment prohibiting the sale of alcohol.  The Empire State Building  Was a symbol of hope for a brighter future  2,500 to 4,000 people worked on the construction.  The cost of construction was about $41 million.  At that time, it was the world’s tallest building  had 102 stories and 67 elevators.  The End of an Era: T hings that symbolized the 1920s faded away.  Organized crime gangster Al Capone was sent to prison.  Calvin Coolidge died.  Babe Ruth retired.

11 What was a penny auction? (A)An event at which stocks once highly valued were auctioned off for a penny. (B)An event at which laborers eager for work auctioned off their labor for pennies. (C)An event at which neighbors, in an effort to help each other, auctioned their spare rooms for a penny. (D)An event at which neighboring farmers bid pennies on land and machines, which the buyers then returned to the original owners. Which of the following did NOT symbolize an end to the prosperity of the 1920s? (A)Al Capone went to jail. (B)Babe Ruth retired. (C)Riots and political upheaval erupted in the nation’s cities. (D)Calvin Coolidge died.

12 What was a penny auction? (A)An event at which stocks once highly valued were auctioned off for a penny. (B)An event at which laborers eager for work auctioned off their labor for pennies. (C)An event at which neighbors, in an effort to help each other, auctioned their spare rooms for a penny. (D)An event at which neighboring farmers bid pennies on land and machines, which the buyers then returned to the original owners. Which of the following did NOT symbolize an end to the prosperity of the 1920s? (A)Al Capone went to jail. (B)Babe Ruth retired. (C)Riots and political upheaval erupted in the nation’s cities. (D)Calvin Coolidge died.

13 When the economy…

14  He believed in volunteerism: businesses support Americans with higher wages  To help industries, Congress passed the Hawley-Smoot tariff, the highest import tax in history.  European countries also raised their tariffs, and international trade suffered a slowdown.  Hoover set up the (RFC), which gave government credit to banks, industries, and insurance companies.  The theory was that helping business would increase jobs  Many Americans saw it as helping bankers and big businessmen, while ordinary people went hungry.  Hoover did not support federal public assistance because he believed it would destroy people’s self-respect and create a large bureaucracy.

15  Public opinion soured for Hoover when he called the U.S. Army to disband a protest of 20,000 unemployed World War I veterans called the Bonus Army.  Between June and July 1932, thousands of WWI veterans converged on Washington, D.C. to demand payment of a bonus promised in 1924 and redeemable in  The ‘Bonus Army’ encamped at ‘Anacostia Flats’ outside D.C. hoping to pressure Congress into releasing the money early.  The House voted to pay the promised bonus of $2.4 billion – the Republican-controlled Senate rejected it

16  Hoover and many Republicans viewed the ‘Bonus Army’ as bums and communists with the potential to riot in the Capitol and spark nationwide uprisings.  Fearing that possibility, Hoover ordered Gen. Douglas MacArthur to evacuate the ‘Bonus Marchers’ from the city without invading their camp  On July 28th, MacArthur led a force consisting of 500 armed soldiers, supported by five tanks, through the encampment during which the camp was burned, several veterans were injured, and one ‘Bonus Baby’ allegedly died from the effects of tear gas  This incident, known to many as the ‘Battle of Anacostia Flats’, further damaged the once-popular Hoover’s public image and helped seal Hoover’s fate in the 1932 presidential election.  President Hoover’s Democratic opponent in the Election of 1932 was Franklin Delano Roosevelt

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19  FDR promised a New Deal for the American people.  He was ready to experiment with government roles in an effort to end the Depression.  As governor of New York, Roosevelt had set up an unemployment commission and a relief agency.  FDR’s wife, Eleanor, was an experienced social reformer.  She worked for public housing legislation, unemployment relief, and better conditions for working women.  When the Roosevelt’s campaigned for the presidency, they brought their ideas for political action with them.

20 Herbert Hoover  Believed that federal government should not try to fix people’s problems.  Argued that federal aid and government policies to help the poor would alter the foundation of our national life.  He argued for voluntary aid to help the poor and argued against giving the national government more power.  Hoover gave very few campaign speeches and was jeered by crowds. Franklin Roosevelt  Believed that government had a responsibility to help people in need.  Called for a reappraisal of values and more controls on big business.  Helped many Americans reassess the importance of “making it on their own” without any help.  Much of his support came from urban workers, coal miners, and immigrants in need of federal relief.

21  Roosevelt won 57 percent of the popular vote and almost 89 percent of the electoral vote.

22 What was one way President Hoover wanted to battle the Depression? (A)Federal relief programs (B)U.S. expansion into foreign markets (C)Stock market investment (D)Voluntary aid Roosevelt won public support from which groups? (A)Urban workers and coal miners (B)Big business executives (C)Supporters of international trade (D)Journalists and newspaper publishers

23 What was one way President Hoover wanted to battle the Depression? (A)Federal relief programs (B)U.S. expansion into foreign markets (C)Stock market investment (D)Voluntary aid Roosevelt won public support from which groups? (A)Urban workers and coal miners (B)Big business executives (C)Supporters of international trade (D)Journalists and newspaper publishers

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