Presentation on theme: "THE WORLD WAR I ERA CHAPTER 19 THE WORLD WAR I ERA."— Presentation transcript:
THE WORLD WAR I ERA CHAPTER 19 THE WORLD WAR I ERA
OBJECTIVES CORE OBJECTIVE: Analyze the causes and effects of World War I. Objective 4.4: Analyze the military and financial ways in which America prepared for war. THEME: At the beginning of the 20 th century, a terrible war begins in Europe that will claim over 8 million lives. After staying neutral for a few years, the United States declared war to support its allies and felt the effects of warfare.
George Washington; Federalist (1788) John Adams; Federalist (1796) Thomas Jefferson (1800) James Madison (1808) James Monroe (1816) John Quincy Adams (1824) Andrew Jackson; Democrat (1828) Martin Van Buren; Democrat (1836) William Henry Harrison; Whig (1840) John Tyler; Whig (1841) James K. Polk; Democrat (1844) Zachary Taylor; Whig (1848) Millard Fillmore; Whig (1850) Franklin Pierce; Democrat (1852) James Buchanan; Democrat (1856) Abraham Lincoln; Republican (1860) Andrew Johnson; Democrat (1865) Ulysses S. Grant; Republican (1868) Rutherford B. Hayes; Republican (1876) James Garfield; Republican (1880) #21 - … Chester A. Arthur; Republican (1881) Grover Cleveland; Democrat (1884) Benjamin Harrison; Republican (1888) Grover Cleveland; Democrat (1892) William McKinley; Republican (1896) Theodore Roosevelt; Republican (1901) William Howard Taft; Republican (1909) #28 - Woodrow Wilson; Democrat (1913)
America: Pathways to the Present Section 1: The Road to War Section 2: The United States Declares War Section 3: Americans on the European Front Section 4: Americans on the Home Front Chapter 19: The World War I Era (1914–1920) Section 5: Global Peacemaker
Modern warfare required huge amounts of money and personnel. Many sacrifices within the United States were needed to meet these demands. The government raised money for the war in part by selling Liberty Bonds, loans the public gave to the government Like all bonds, these could be redeemed later for their original value plus interest. Many patriotic Americans bought liberty bonds, raising more than $20 billion for the war effort. War Industries Board WIB oversaw war production & switched industries to military production National War Labor Board helped ensure that labor disputes did not disrupt the war effort.
Financing the war: Sale of war bonds. Liberty and victory loans raised $21 billion. Raised income taxes
Using the slogan, “Food will win the war,” Herbert Hoover, head of the Food Administration and future President, began to manage how much food people bought. Hoover imposed price controls, a system of pricing determined by the government Used rationing, or distributing goods to customers in a fixed amount. However, instead of forcing companies to comply, Hoover preferred to rely on voluntary restraint and increased efficiency. Daylight savings time was created to increase the number of daylight hours available for work. This involved turning clocks back one hour for the summer, creating one more hour of daylight.
Fear the Foreigner Fear of espionage, or spying, was widespread; restrictions on immigration were called for and achieved. Hate the Hun The war spurred a general hostility toward Germans, often referred to as Huns in reference to European invaders of the fourth and fifth centuries. German music, literature, language, and cuisine became banned or unpopular. Repression of Civil Liberties Despite Wilson’s claim that the United States fought for liberty and democracy, freedom of speech was reduced during the war. Espionage Age (1917) and Sedition Act (1918) limit free speech Sedition, or any speech or action that encourages rebellion, became a crime. Over 1,000 citizens were convicted of sedition
Many African Americans volunteered or were drafted for service. African-American men served in segregated units and served noncombat roles. 300,000 are drafted into segregated units The Harlem Hell Fighters (369 th ) were loaned to the French and earned the Croix de Guerre With much of the work force in the military, factory owners and managers who had once discriminated against minorities began actively recruiting them. The flood of African Americans leaving the South to work in northern factories became known as the Great Migration.
Military Service 11,000 women served in uniform as nurses, drivers, and clerks The diminished male work force also created new working opportunities for women. Many women joined the work force for the first time during the war. Some found work on farms with the Woman’s Land Army; others took jobs traditionally reserved for men in factories. 40,000 women found new jobs in industry