2Predator and Prey Relationships One important interaction in the ecosystem isbetween predators and their prey.Predators are organisms which hunt and feedon other organisms Whereas the living thingsthat are eaten are referred to as prey.1. To maintain balance in the ecosystem, the interaction between predator and prey should not be disturbed.
3WHY? Example In parts of the South, one natural predator of the white-tailed deer, the mountain lion, hasbeen reduced in number. Because there arefewer mountain lions to prey on the deer, thedeer population in some regions has risentremendously.WHY?
4Food Chain A food chain is the relationship of organisms that depend on each other for energy or food.It is a straight line relationship such as algaeis food for fish which are food for squid whichare food for sharks.
5Food Web How Come? A food web is more complex and is a food chain with the interrelated chain of organismsthat depend on each other for food.If one organism is removed, other organismsmay be endangered or possibly die out.How Come?
7Carrying Capacity Carrying capacity is the number of individuals in a population that the resources can support.This provides for a balanced ecosystem.
8Trophic Levels The living things in an ecosystem can be divided into four levels. Each step in a foodchain or food web is called a trophic level.Producers are the first step.Consumers are the next steps.Each step depends on the step below it forfood and to provide its energy.
9Producers Producers are the green plants and some bacteria and algae that are able to make theirown food from water, the sun, carbon dioxidein the air, and minerals in the soil.When plants make their own food, they use sunlight. This process is called photosynthesis.
10What is Photosynthesis? The process of photosynthesis is a chemical reaction.It is the most importantchemical reaction on our planet.
11What is the Equation for the Chemical Reaction of Photosynthesis?
12What is the equation for the chemical reaction of photosynthesis?
13What is the equation for the chemical reaction of photosynthesis? Six molecules of carbon dioxide react with six molecules of water to form 1 molecule of glucose and six molecules of oxygen.
14Describe Photosynthesis The process of changing light energy to chemical energyEnergy stored as sugarOccurs in plants and some algaePlants need light energy, CO2, and H2OTakes place in the chloroplasts, using chlorophyll, the green pigment in plants
15What happens during photosynthesis? Plants capture light energy and use that energy to make glucoseSunlight provides the energy needed by chlorophyll to change molecules of carbon dioxide and water into glucoseOxygen is also released in this reaction
16What happens during photosynthesis? Carbon dioxide enters the leaf through holes called stomataCO2 combines with the stored energy in the chloroplasts through a chemical reaction to make glucoseThe sugar is moved through tubes in the leaf to the roots, stems and fruits of the plantsSome of the sugar is used right away by the plant for energy; some is stored as starch; and some is built into plant tissue
17Why is this important to us? We cannot make our own food (glucose, energy), we must get our food from plants.Plants are the first step in the food chain.
18Why is this important to us? The oxygen released during photosynthesis is necessary for all living things.
20Consumers Consumers are the animals that rely on other organisms for food. This group can be furtherdivided into three groups:Primary consumers are herbivores, or plant eaters. Examples – some insects, deer, or mice.Secondary consumers are carnivores, or flesh eaters. They feed on herbivores. Examples – snakes and coyotesTertiary consumers can be carnivores or omnivores, which eat both plants and animals. Example – hawks and humans
21Scavengers Scavengers feed on dead organisms. They include ants and vultures.
22Decomposers Decomposers are organisms that break down dead organic matter. This decompositionproduces many of the raw materials that areused by the producers in photosynthesis.Examples are bacteria, fungi and earthworms.
23Symbiotic Relationships Symbiosis = a beneficial relationship between 2 organisms that live together.3 types of symbiosisCommensalism = 1 organisms benefits, the other neither benefits or is harmed.Parasitism = 1 organisms benefits the other is harmed.Mutualism = both organisms benefit.
24CommensalismCommensalism occurs in a relationship where one animal benefits and the other is unaffected.The dorsal fin of the Remora is modified into a sucker. They attach to sharks during feeding and eat the scraps. The sharks do not try to eat the Remora.
25ParasitismA parasite is an organism that lives on or in the body of another organism (the host)from whose tissues it gets its nourishment, andto whom it does some damageAnimals are parasitized by viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoans, flatworms (tapeworms and flukes), nematodes, insects (fleas, lice), and arachnids (mites).Plants are parasitized by viruses, bacteria, fungi, nematodes, and a few other plants.The flea is common on dogs and cats
26MutualismThe clownfish feeds the anemone by gathering nutrients and also leaving nutritional waste on the tentacles.The clownfish can come in contact with the stinging tentacles of the sea anemone and not be harmed by them.At the same time, it receives protection from its enemies.
27Ecological Pyramids Ecological pyramids are diagrams that show each trophic level in a biome. There are threetypes:Energy pyramidBiomass pyramidNumbers pyramid
28Energy Pyramid The energy pyramid shows the transfer of energy from one level to the next. The bottomof the food chain shows the largest amount ofenergy which comes from the sun then as youmove up energy is used but also lost in theform of heat energy.