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Fishes of Pennsylvania Introduction to the Nekton.

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Presentation on theme: "Fishes of Pennsylvania Introduction to the Nekton."— Presentation transcript:

1 Fishes of Pennsylvania Introduction to the Nekton

2 Fishes of Pennsylvania Lampreys Sturgeons Paddlefish Gars Bowfin American Eel Herrings Minnows Suckers Catfishes Pikes Rainbow Smelt Trout and Salmon Burbot Banded Killifish Threespine Stickleback Sculpin Temperate Basses Sunfishes Perches Freshwater Drum

3 Major Streams of Pennsylvania

4 Lampreys American Brook Lamprey Lampetra appendix Larvae filter feed Adult does not feed. The Sea Lamprey (in Great Lakes) and the Ohio Lamprey (western PA) are parasitic. The three native PA Brook Lampreys are not parasitic.

5 Sturgeons The Lake Sturgeon – Acipenser fulvescens- is the only freshwater sturgeon in PA. It is found in Lake Erie. The Shortnose Sturgeon and the Atlantic Sturgeon are marine and tidal fish that may occur in the lower Delaware River. All PA sturgeons are endangered

6 Paddlefish Paddlefish –Polydon spathula- only living species. Extirpated from former ranges in western PA and Lake Erie. PA Fish and Boat Commission reintroduced them to the Ohio and Allegheny Rivers.

7 Gar Two gar species occur in PA: The Spotted Gar and the Longnose Gar. The Longnose Gar – Lepidosteus osseus- is in low numbers through the lower Great Lakes, western PA and extreme lower Susquehanna River.

8 Bowfin Bowfin – Amia calvia Found mainly around Presque Isle and in the lower parts of the major drainages. Can tolerate very warm water and gulp air.

9 American Eel The American Eel – Anguila americana – occurs in the Delaware River drainage. Now attempts are being made to return the eel to the Susquehanna River

10 Herrings This family includes Blueback Herring, Alewife, Gizzard Shad, Hickory Shad, and American Shad. The American Shad –Alosa sapidissima- anadromous fish that enter mainstem of large rivers to spawn. Attempts to support shad run in the Susquehanna River In rivers, shad eat small crustaceans, zooplankton, worms, insects, and small fish

11 Minnows PA has 39 species of minnows, including exotics like Carp and Goldfish. The minnows of Pennsylvania include: – Bluntnose Minnow – Cutlips Minnow – Central Stoneroller – Emerald Shiner – Hornyhead Chub – Grass Carp – Common Carp – Common Shiner – River Chub – Golden Shiner – Fathead Minnow – Spotfin Shiner – Rosyface Shiner – Blacknose Dace – Longnose Dace – Creek Chub – Fallfish

12 Cutlips Minnow Cutlips Minnow (Exoglossum maxillingua) Lower lip in three lobes, the center of which looks like a tongue Stony pools of clean streams Mainly feed on small mollusks, insects, and diatoms

13 Common Carp The Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Native to Asia and eastern Europe; considered invasive in some watersheds Found in many habitats, but prefer slow-moving water with a well- developed littoral zone

14 Common Shiner Common Shiner (Notropis cornutus) Moving water, warm to cold Very common in North America, east of the Rocky Mountains and North of the Gulf states Omnivore: plants and insects mainly at or near the surface

15 Spotfin Shiner Spotfin Shiner (Cyprinella spiloptera) Common in streams throughout the east Omnivore: plants, insects, small fish near the surface

16 Longnose Dace Longnose Dace (Rhinichthyes cataractae) In streams with riffles and pools Mainly staying near the bottom where they feed on insect larvae, particularly chironomids

17 Suckers Quillback Carpsucker White Sucker Northern Hog Sucker The Redhorses – River Redhorse – Shorthead Redhorse

18 Quillback Carpsucker The Quillback Carpsucker (Carpoides cyprinus) Body is deep and laterally compressed They travel in schools in slow-moving rivers and backwaters with gravel bottoms. Eat a wide variety of benthic macroinvertebrates

19 White Sucker The White Sucker (Catostomus commersoni) Cylindrical body with a rounded snout Range from headwaters to warm, low oxygen water. They are omnivores, feeding on plants, zooplankton, benthos

20 Northern Hog Sucker The Northern Hogsucker (Hypentelium nigricans) The body is cylindrical and darkly camouflaged Found in clean streams Overturn rock while scraping biofilm, and aquatic macroinvertebrates

21 Catfishes White Catfish Yellow Bullhead Brown Bullhead Channel Catfish Margined Madtom Stonecat Flathead Catfish

22 Brown Bullhead Brown Bullhead (Ameiurus nebulosus) Cylindrical body with flattened head Found in lakes, ponds and slow-moving rivers Tolerate warm water and low oxygen Omnivorous

23 Channel Catfish Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) Body cylindrical with spots on the sides Habitats vary; fast-moving water to deep pools, reservoirs, lakes, and farm ponds Young eat insects but change to fish and plants as they get larger

24 Margined Madtom Margined Madtom (Noturus insignis) Small, tubular fish; have poison glands associated with pectoral spines Found in rocks in riffles Feed on benthic macroinvertebrates

25 Pikes Redfin Pickerel Grass Pickerel Northern Pike Tiger Muskellunge Muskellunge Chain Pickerel

26 Muskellunge The Muskellunge (Esox masquinongy) Tubular fish, nearly 1.5M long Found in large clean rivers with submerged vegetation Ambush predator

27 Chain Pickerel The Chain Pickerel (Esox niger) Tubular body Can be found in backwaters and in brown-water habitats; but can be found in deep lakes among weeds and stumps Ambush predators

28 Rainbow Smelt The Rainbow Smelt (Osmerus mordax) Like a minnow with strong teeth Anadromous fish introduced to the Great Lakes Feed on insects and fish fry

29 Trout and Salmon Coho Salmon Chinook Salmon Pink Salmon Rainbow Trout Steelhead Golden Rainbow Trout Brown Trout Brook trout Lake trout Atlantic Salmon

30 Brook Trout The Brook Trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) Official State Fish of PA Only stream trout native to PA Low order cold, clean streams Feed on aquatic and terrestrial insects, crustaceans, small fish

31 Rainbow Trout Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Introduced species Lighter than the Brook and has a red lateral line In fastwater streams Feed on aquatic and terrestrial insects, crustaceans, and small fish

32 Burbot Burbot (Lota lota) Endangered native and member of the Cod family Found in the Great Lakes and Allegheny River; requires cold, clean water Feed on invertebrates and fishes

33 Banded Killifish The Banded Killifish (Fundulus diaphanus) Established in most drainages in PA Called topminnnow, but feed at all levels of slow- moving parts of streams Eat macroinvertebrates, mainly insects and crustacea. Will take small fish.

34 Threespine Stickleback The Threespine Stickleback (Gasterosteous aculeatus) Endangered native Fish are small, schooling fish with bony plates on their sides Require clean, clear water in slow-moving parts of streams Eat fish fry and eggs; insects and crustaceans

35 Sculpins There are two species of sculpins in PA waters: Mottled Sculpin (Cottus bairdi) and Slimy Sculpin (C. cognatus) Freshwater members of a mostly marine family Often found together with Brook Trout; require clean, clear, cold low order streams

36 Temperate Basses This family includes White Perch (Morone americana), White Bass (M. chrysops), and Striped Bass (M. saxatilis) Fish of large rivers and lakes; introduced into reservoirs Travel in schools and feed on fish

37 Sunfishes Redear Sunfish Banded Sunfish Blackbanded Sunfish Bluespotted Sunfish Warmouth Mud Sunfish Longear Sunfish Rock Bass Redbreast Sunfish Green Sunfish Pumpkinseed Bluegill Smallmouth Bass Spotted Bass Largemouth Bass White Crappie Black Crappie

38 Bluegill Bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) Oval deep body that is laterally-flattened In lakes, ponds, and slow- moving parts of streams with submerged plants Eat aquatic macroinvertebrates, small fish, and, occasionally, plants

39 Smallmouth Bass The Smallmouth Bass (Micropterus dolomieui) Native to Great Lakes and Ohio Valley; distributed elsewhere Require rocky habitats, usually in, but not restricted to, moving water Feed on crustaceans and fish

40 Largemouth Bass Largemouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides) Native to Great Lakes and Ohio Valley, now distributed throughout PA Prefer warm water habitats; ponds and small lakes with submerged aquatics They eat almost any animal that they can fit into their mouths

41 Perches Greenside Darter Banded Darter Rainbow Darter Bluebreast Darter Johnny Darter Tesselated Darter Gilt Darter Spotted Darter Longhead Darter Eastern Sand Darter Tippecanoe Darter Yellow Perch Logperch Sauger Saugeye Walleye

42 Tesselated Darter The Tesselated Darter (Etheostoma olmstedi) Tubular body with large pectoral fins Sandy or rock bottom in flowing water Eat small insects and crustaceans

43 Yellow Perch Yellow Perch (Perca flavescens) Throughout the northern US In warm to cool lakes, ponds, and slow-moving parts of streams Adults eat mainly small fish

44 Walleye Walleye (Sander vitreus) Native to the Great Lakes and the Ohio Valley, they have been introduced as a sport fish to appropriate habitats in PA In large lakes and rivers Usually the top predator

45 Freshwater Drum The Freshwater Drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) Called croakers; mainly from a marine family In the Great Lakes and the western rivers of PA Feeds on mollusks, insects, and crustaceans


47 Fishes Classified According to Habitat Littoral Zone Limnetic Zone Benthic Zone Streams – Upper Reaches – Middle Reaches – Lower reaches


49 Fishes Classified According to Ecological Conditions Temperature Light Water Movement Food Social Factors Population Density Population Structure

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