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Correlative Body Systems. Body Temperature Regulation Endothermy –Using energy generated by metabolism (mitochondria) to regulate and maintain temperature.

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Presentation on theme: "Correlative Body Systems. Body Temperature Regulation Endothermy –Using energy generated by metabolism (mitochondria) to regulate and maintain temperature."— Presentation transcript:

1 Correlative Body Systems

2 Body Temperature Regulation Endothermy –Using energy generated by metabolism (mitochondria) to regulate and maintain temperature Ectothermy –The use of external thermal energy to regulate and maintain temperature

3 Body Temperature Regulation

4 Surface-to-Volume Ratio AlveoliVilli and Microvilli

5 Interactions and Coordination Gas Exchange and Respiratory systems

6 Interactions and Coordination Gas Exchange

7 Interactions and Coordination

8

9 Circulatory and Respiratory

10 Obtaining Nutrients Digestive Systems

11 Obtaining Nutrients Interactions and Coordination

12 Obtaining Nutrients Regulation

13 Eliminating Wastes Nitrogenous waste

14 Eliminating Wastes

15

16 Homeostatic Control Osmoregulation

17 Muscular

18 Interactions and Coordination

19 Fig. 47-UN1 Sperm-egg fusion and depolarization of egg membrane (fast block to polyspermy) Cortical granule release (cortical reaction) Formation of fertilization envelope (slow block to polyspermy)

20 Fig. 47-UN2 Blastocoel Animal pole 2-cell stage forming 8-cell stage Blastula Vegetal pole

21 Fig. 47-UN3

22 Fig. 47-UN4 Neural tube Coelom Notochord Coelom Notochord Neural tube

23 Fig. 47-UN5 Species : Stage:

24 Fig. 47-UN6

25 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Body Cavities Most triploblastic animals possess a body cavity A true body cavity is called a coelom and is derived from mesoderm Coelomates are animals that possess a true coelom

26 Fig Coelom Body covering (from ectoderm) Digestive tract (from endoderm) Tissue layer lining coelom and suspending internal organs (from mesoderm) (a) Coelomate Body covering (from ectoderm) Pseudocoelom Digestive tract (from endoderm) Muscle layer (from mesoderm) (b) Pseudocoelomate Body covering (from ectoderm) Tissue- filled region (from mesoderm) Wall of digestive cavity (from endoderm) (c) Acoelomate

27 Fig. 32-8a Coelom Body covering (from ectoderm) Digestive tract (from endoderm) Tissue layer lining coelom and suspending internal organs (from mesoderm) (a) Coelomate

28 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings A pseudocoelom is a body cavity derived from the mesoderm and endoderm Triploblastic animals that possess a pseudocoelom are called pseudocoelomates

29 Fig. 32-8b Pseudocoelom Body covering (from ectoderm) Muscle layer (from mesoderm) Digestive tract (from endoderm) (b) Pseudocoelomate

30 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Triploblastic animals that lack a body cavity are called acoelomates

31 Fig. 32-8c (c) Acoelomate Body covering (from ectoderm) Wall of digestive cavity (from endoderm) Tissue- filled region (from mesoderm)

32 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Protostome and Deuterostome Development Based on early development, many animals can be categorized as having protostome development or deuterostome development

33 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Cleavage In protostome development, cleavage is spiral and determinate In deuterostome development, cleavage is radial and indeterminate With indeterminate cleavage, each cell in the early stages of cleavage retains the capacity to develop into a complete embryo Indeterminate cleavage makes possible identical twins, and embryonic stem cells

34 Fig Protostome development (examples: molluscs, annelids) Deuterostome development (examples: echinoderm, chordates) Eight-cell stage Spiral and determinate Radial and indeterminate Coelom Archenteron (a) Cleavage (b) Coelom formation Coelom Key Ectoderm Mesoderm Endoderm Mesoderm Blastopore Solid masses of mesoderm split and form coelom. Folds of archenteron form coelom. AnusMouth Digestive tube MouthAnus Mouth develops from blastopore.Anus develops from blastopore. (c) Fate of the blastopore

35 Fig. 32-9a Eight-cell stage (a) Cleavage Spiral and determinateRadial and indeterminate Protostome development (examples: molluscs, annelids) Deuterostome development (examples: echinoderms, chordates)

36 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Coelom Formation In protostome development, the splitting of solid masses of mesoderm forms the coelom In deuterostome development, the mesoderm buds from the wall of the archenteron to form the coelom

37 Fig. 32-9b Coelom Protostome development (examples: molluscs, annelids) Deuterostome development (examples: echinoderms, chordates) (b) Coelom formation Key Ectoderm Mesoderm Endoderm Mesoderm Coelom Archenteron Blastopore Solid masses of mesoderm split and form coelom. Folds of archenteron form coelom.

38 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Fate of the Blastopore The blastopore forms during gastrulation and connects the archenteron to the exterior of the gastrula In protostome development, the blastopore becomes the mouth In deuterostome development, the blastopore becomes the anus

39 Fig. 32-9c Anus Protostome development (examples: molluscs, annelids) Deuterostome development (examples: echinoderms, chordates) Anus Mouth Digestive tube (c) Fate of the blastopore Key Ectoderm Mesoderm Endoderm Mouth develops from blastopore.Anus develops from blastopore.

40 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings Concept 32.4: New views of animal phylogeny are emerging from molecular data Zoologists recognize about three dozen animal phyla Current debate in animal systematics has led to the development of two phylogenetic hypotheses, but others exist as well

41 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings One hypothesis of animal phylogeny is based mainly on morphological and developmental comparisons

42 Fig ANCESTRAL COLONIAL FLAGELLATE Metazoa Eumetazoa “Porifera” Bilateria Deuterostomia Protostomia Cnidaria Ctenophora Ectoprocta Brachiopoda Echinodermata Chordata Platyhelminthes Rotifera Mollusca Annelida Arthropoda Nematoda

43 Copyright © 2008 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Pearson Benjamin Cummings One hypothesis of animal phylogeny is based mainly on molecular data

44 Fig Silicea ANCESTRAL COLONIAL FLAGELLATE Metazoa Eumetazoa “Porifera” Bilateria Deuterostomia Lophotrochozoa Ecdysozoa Calcarea Ctenophora Cnidaria Acoela Echinodermata Chordata Platyhelminthes Rotifera Ectoprocta Brachiopoda Mollusca Annelida Nematoda Arthropoda


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