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CAMPBELL BIOLOGY Reece Urry Cain Wasserman Minorsky Jackson © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. TENTH EDITION 32 An Overview of Animal Diversity Lecture Presentation.

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Presentation on theme: "CAMPBELL BIOLOGY Reece Urry Cain Wasserman Minorsky Jackson © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. TENTH EDITION 32 An Overview of Animal Diversity Lecture Presentation."— Presentation transcript:

1 CAMPBELL BIOLOGY Reece Urry Cain Wasserman Minorsky Jackson © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. TENTH EDITION 32 An Overview of Animal Diversity Lecture Presentation by Nicole Tunbridge and Kathleen Fitzpatrick

2 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. A Kingdom of Consumers  Most animals are mobile and use traits such as strength, speed, toxins, or camouflage to detect, capture, and eat other organisms  For example, the chameleon captures insect prey with its long, sticky, quick-moving tongue

3 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 32.1

4 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 32.1a

5 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Concept 32.1: Animals are multicellular, heterotrophic eukaryotes with tissues that develop from embryonic layers  There are exceptions to nearly every criterion for distinguishing animals from other life-forms  Several characteristics, taken together, sufficiently define the group

6 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Nutritional Mode  Animals are heterotrophs that ingest their food

7 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Cell Structure and Specialization  Animals are multicellular eukaryotes  Their cells lack cell walls  Their bodies are held together by structural proteins such as collagen  Nervous tissue and muscle tissue are unique, defining characteristics of animals  Tissues are groups of similar cells that act as a functional unit

8 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Reproduction and Development  Most animals reproduce sexually, with the diploid stage usually dominating the life cycle  After a sperm fertilizes an egg, the zygote undergoes rapid cell division called cleavage  Cleavage leads to formation of a multicellular, hollow blastula  The blastula undergoes gastrulation, forming a gastrula with different layers of embryonic tissues

9 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure Zygote Cleavage Eight-cell stage

10 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure Zygote Cleavage Eight-cell stage Cleavage Blastocoel Cross section of blastula Blastula

11 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure Zygote Cleavage Eight-cell stage Cleavage Blastocoel Cross section of blastula Blastula Gastrulation Blastocoel Endoderm Ectoderm Archenteron Cross section of gastrula Blastopore

12 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Video: Sea Urchin Embryonic Development (Time Lapse)

13 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.  Most animals have at least one larval stage  A larva is sexually immature and morphologically distinct from the adult; it eventually undergoes metamorphosis to become a juvenile  A juvenile resembles an adult, but is not yet sexually mature

14 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.  Most animals, and only animals, have Hox genes that regulate the development of body form  Although the Hox family of genes has been highly conserved, it can produce a wide diversity of animal morphology

15 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Concept 32.2: The history of animals spans more than half a billion years  More than 1.3 million animal species have been named to date; far more are estimated to exist  The common ancestor of all living animals likely lived between 700 and 770 million years ago

16 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Steps in the Origin of Multicellular Animals  Morphological and molecular evidence points to a group of protists called choanoflagellates as the closest living relatives to animals  The common ancestor may have resembled modern choanoflagellates

17 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 32.3 Individual choanoflagellate Choano- flagellates OTHER EUKARYOTES Sponges Other animals Collar cell (choanocyte) Animals

18 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.  The origin of multicellularity requires the evolution of new ways for cells to adhere (attach) and signal (communicate) to each other  Molecular analysis has revealed similarities between genes coding for proteins involved in adherence and attachment in choanoflagellates and animals

19 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 32.4 Choano- flagellate Hydra Fruit fly Mouse “CCD” domain (only found in animals)

20 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Neoproterozoic Era (1 Billion–542 Million Years Ago)  Early members of the animal fossil record include the Ediacaran biota, which dates back to about 560 million years ago  Early animal embryos and evidence of predation have also been found in Neoproterozoic rocks

21 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure cm (a) Mawsonites spriggi 0.4 cm (b) Spriggina floundersi

22 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 32.5a 1.5 cm (a) Mawsonites spriggi

23 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 32.5b 0.4 cm (b) Spriggina floundersi

24 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 32.6 Bore hole 0.1 mm

25 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Paleozoic Era (542–251 Million Years Ago)  The Cambrian explosion (535 to 525 million years ago) marks the earliest fossil appearance of many major groups of living animals  Most of the fossils from the Cambrian explosion are of bilaterians, organisms that have the following traits:  Bilaterally symmetric form  Complete digestive tract  One-way digestive system

26 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 32.7 Hallucigenia fossil (530 mya) 1 cm

27 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 32.7a

28 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 32.7b Hallucigenia fossil (530 mya) 1 cm

29 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.  There are several hypotheses regarding the cause of the Cambrian explosion and decline of Ediacaran biota  New predator-prey relationships  A rise in atmospheric oxygen  The evolution of the Hox gene complex

30 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.  Animal diversity continued to increase through the Paleozoic, but was punctuated by mass extinctions  Animals began to make an impact on land by 450 million years ago  Vertebrates made the transition to land around 365 million years ago

31 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Mesozoic Era (251–65.5 Million Years Ago)  Coral reefs emerged, becoming important marine ecological niches for other organisms  The ancestors of plesiosaurs were reptiles that returned to the water  During the Mesozoic era, dinosaurs were the dominant terrestrial vertebrates  The first mammals emerged  Flowering plants and insects diversified

32 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Cenozoic Era (65.5 Million Years Ago to the Present)  The beginning of the Cenozoic era followed mass extinctions of both terrestrial and marine animals  These extinctions included the large, nonflying dinosaurs and the marine reptiles  Mammals increased in size and exploited vacated ecological niches  The global climate cooled

33 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Concept 32.3: Animals can be characterized by “body plans”  Zoologists sometimes categorize animals according to a body plan, a set of morphological and developmental traits  Some body plans have been conserved, while others have changed multiple times over the course of evolution

34 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Symmetry  Animals can be categorized according to the symmetry of their bodies, or lack of it  Some animals have radial symmetry, with no front and back, or left and right

35 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 32.8 (a) Radial symmetry Bilateral symmetry (b)

36 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.  Two-sided symmetry is called bilateral symmetry  Bilaterally symmetrical animals have  A dorsal (top) side and a ventral (bottom) side  A right and left side  Anterior (front) and posterior (back) ends  Many also have sensory equipment, such as a brain, concentrated in their anterior end

37 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.  Radial animals are often sessile or planktonic (drifting or weakly swimming)  Bilateral animals often move actively and have a central nervous system

38 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Tissues  Animal body plans also vary according to the organization of the animal’s tissues  Tissues are collections of specialized cells isolated from other tissues by membranous layers  During development, three germ layers give rise to the tissues and organs of the animal embryo

39 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.  Ectoderm is the germ layer covering the embryo’s surface  Endoderm is the innermost germ layer and lines the developing digestive tube, called the archenteron

40 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.  Sponges and a few other groups lack true tissues  Diploblastic animals have ectoderm and endoderm  These include cnidarians and a few other groups  Triploblastic animals also have an intervening mesoderm layer; these include all bilaterians  These include flatworms, arthropods, vertebrates, and others

41 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Body Cavities  Most triploblastic animals possess a body cavity  A true body cavity is called a coelom and is derived from mesoderm  Coelomates are animals that possess a true coelom

42 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 32.9 (a) Coelomate Key Ectoderm Mesoderm Endoderm Coelom Body covering (from ectoderm) Tissue layer lining coelom and suspending internal organs (from mesoderm) Digestive tract (from endoderm) Body covering (from ectoderm) Muscle layer (from mesoderm) Pseudo- coelom Digestive tract (from endoderm) (c) Acoelomate Body covering (from ectoderm) Tissue- filled region (from mesoderm) Wall of digestive cavity (from endoderm) (b)Psuedocoelomate

43 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 32.9a (a) Coelomate Key Ectoderm Mesoderm Endoderm Coelom Body covering (from ectoderm) Tissue layer lining coelom and suspending internal organs (from mesoderm) Digestive tract (from endoderm)

44 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 32.9b (b) Pseudocoelomate Key Ectoderm Mesoderm Endoderm Body covering (from ectoderm) Muscle layer (from mesoderm) Pseudo- coelom Digestive tract (from endoderm)

45 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 32.9c (c) Acoelomate Body covering (from ectoderm) Tissue- filled region (from mesoderm) Wall of digestive cavity (from endoderm) Key Ectoderm Mesoderm Endoderm

46 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.  A pseudocoelom is a body cavity derived from the mesoderm and endoderm  Triploblastic animals that possess a pseudocoelom are called pseudocoelomates

47 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.  Triploblastic animals that lack a body cavity are called acoelomates

48 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.  Terms such as coelomates and pseudocoelomates refer to organisms that have a similar body plan and belong to the same grade  A grade is a group whose members share key biological features  A grade is not necessarily a clade, an ancestor and all of its descendants

49 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Protostome and Deuterostome Development  Based on early development, many animals can be categorized as having protostome development or deuterostome development

50 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Cleavage  In protostome development, cleavage is spiral and determinate  In deuterostome development, cleavage is radial and indeterminate  With indeterminate cleavage, each cell in the early stages of cleavage retains the capacity to develop into a complete embryo  Indeterminate cleavage makes possible identical twins, and embryonic stem cells

51 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure Protostome development (examples: molluscs, annelids) Deuterostome development (examples: echinoderms, chordates) (a) Cleavage Key Ectoderm Mesoderm Endoderm (b) Coelom formation (c) Fate of the blastopore Eight-cell stage Spiral and determinate Radial and indeterminate Coelom Archenteron Coelom Mesoderm Blastopore Solid masses of mesoderm split and form coelom. Folds of archenteron form coelom. Blastopore Mesoderm Anus Digestive tube Mouth Anus Mouth Mouth develops from blastopore. Anus develops from blastopore.

52 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 32.10a Protostome development (examples: molluscs, annelids) Deuterostome development (examples: echinoderms, chordates) (a) Cleavage Eight-cell stage Spiral and determinate Eight-cell stage Radial and indeterminate

53 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 32.10b Protostome development (examples: molluscs, annelids) Deuterostome development (examples: echinoderms, chordates) (b) Coelom formation Key Ectoderm Mesoderm Endoderm Coelom Archenteron Coelom BlastoporeMesoderm BlastoporeMesoderm Solid masses of mesoderm split and form coelom. Folds of archenteron form coelom.

54 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 32.10c Protostome development (examples: molluscs, annelids) Deuterostome development (examples: echinoderms, chordates) (c) Fate of the blastopore Key Ectoderm Mesoderm Endoderm Anus Mouth Mouth develops from blastopore. Digestive tube Anus Mouth Anus develops from blastopore.

55 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Coelom Formation  In protostome development, the splitting of solid masses of mesoderm forms the coelom  In deuterostome development, the mesoderm buds from the wall of the archenteron to form the coelom

56 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Fate of the Blastopore  The blastopore forms during gastrulation and connects the archenteron to the exterior of the gastrula  In protostome development, the blastopore becomes the mouth  In deuterostome development, the blastopore becomes the anus

57 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Concept 32.4: Views of animal phylogeny continue to be shaped by new molecular and morphological data  By 500 million years ago, most animal phyla with members alive today were established

58 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. The Diversification of Animals  Zoologists recognize about three dozen animal phyla  Phylogenies now combine morphological, molecular, and fossil data

59 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.  Five important points about the relationships among living animals are reflected in their phylogeny 1. All animals share a common ancestor 2.Sponges are basal animals 3.Eumetazoa (“true animals”) is a clade of animals with true tissues 4.Most animal phyla belong to the clade Bilateria 5.There are three major clades of bilaterian animals, all of which are invertebrates, animals that lack a backbone, except Chordata, which are classified as vertebrates because they have a backbone

60 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure ANCESTRAL PROTIST Porifera Ctenophora Cnidaria Acoela 770 million years ago 680 million years ago 670 million years ago Metazoa Eumetazoa Bilateria Hemichordata Echinodermata Chordata Platyhelminthes Rotifera Ectoprocta Brachiopoda Mollusca Annelida Nematoda Arthropoda Deuterostomia Lophotrochozoa Ecdysozoa

61 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 32.11a Porifera Ctenophora Cnidaria Acoela ANCESTRAL PROTIST 770 million years ago 680 million years ago 670 million years ago Metazoa Eumetazoa Bilateria

62 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 32.11b Hemichordata Echinodermata Chordata Platyhelminthes Rotifera Ectoprocta Brachiopoda Mollusca Annelida Nematoda Arthropoda Deuterostomia Lophotrochozoa Ecdysozoa

63 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.  The bilaterians are divided into three clades: Deuterostomia, Ecdysozoa, and Lophotrochozoa  Deuterostomia includes hemichordates (acorn worms), echinoderms (sea stars and relatives), and chordates  This clade includes both vertebrates and invertebrates

64 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.  Ecdysozoa is a clade of invertebrates that shed their exoskeletons through a process called ecdysis

65 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc.  Lophotrochozoa is another clade of bilaterian invertebrates  Some lophotrochozoans have a feeding structure called a lophophore  Others go through a distinct developmental stage called the trochophore larva

66 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure Lophophore feeding structures of an ectoproct (a) Lophophore Structure of a trochophore larva (b) Anus Mouth Apical tuft of cilia

67 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 32.12a Lophophore feeding structures of an ectoproct (a) Lophophore

68 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Future Directions in Animal Systematics  Systematics, like all fields of scientific research, is an ongoing, dynamic process of inquiry  Three outstanding questions are the focus of current research 1.Are sponges monophyletic? 2.Are ctenophores basal metazoans? 3.Are acoelomate flatworms basal bilaterians?

69 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 32.UN01 Animal Phylum Porifera Platyhelminthes Cnidaria Nematoda Echinodermata Cephalochordata Arthropoda Urochordata Mollusca Annelida Vertebrata i No. of miRNAs (x i ) Sy =Sy =  = = No. of Cell Types (y i ) Sx =Sx =  = =  = =

70 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 32.UN02 535−525 mya: Cambrian explosion 560 mya: Ediacaran animals 365 mya: Early land animals Origin and diversification of dinosaurs Diversification of mammals Era Neoproterozoic Paleozoic Mesozoic Ceno- zoic 1, Millions of years ago (mya)

71 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 32.UN03 Porifera (basal animals) Ctenophora Cnidaria Acoela (basal bilaterians) Deuterostomia Lophotrochozoa Ecdysozoa True tissues Bilateral symmetry Three germ layers Metazoa Eumetazoa Bilateria (most animals)

72 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 32.UN04 Blastopore FatePhyla Protostomy (P) Deuterostomy (D) Neither (N) Source: A. Hejnol and M. Martindale, The mouth, the anus, and the blastopore - open questions about questionable openings. In Animal Evolu- tion: Genomes, Fossils and Trees, eds. D. T. J. Littlewood and M. J. Telford, Oxford University Press, pp. 33–40 (2009). Platyhelminthes, Rotifera, Nematoda; most Mollusca, most Annelida; few Arthropoda Echinodermata, Chordata; most Arthropoda; few Mollusca, few Annelida Acoela

73 © 2014 Pearson Education, Inc. Figure 32.UN05


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