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Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint Lectures for Biology, Seventh Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint Lectures for Biology, Seventh Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings PowerPoint Lectures for Biology, Seventh Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero Chapter 32 An Introduction to Animal Diversity

2 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Overview: Welcome to Your Kingdom The animal kingdom extends far beyond humans and other animals we may encounter Video: Coral Reef Video: Coral Reef

3 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

4 Concept 32.1: Animal are multicellular, heterotrophic eukaryotes with tissues that develop from embryonic layers There are exceptions to nearly every criterion for distinguishing animals from other life forms Several characteristics, taken together, sufficiently define the group

5 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Nutritional Mode Animals are heterotrophs that ingest their food

6 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cell Structure and Specialization Animals are multicellular eukaryotes Their cells lack cell walls

7 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Their bodies are held together by structural proteins such as collagen Nervous tissue and muscle tissue are unique to animals

8 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Reproduction and Development Most animals reproduce sexually, with the diploid stage usually dominating the life cycle

9 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings After a sperm fertilizes an egg, the zygote undergoes cleavage, leading to formation of a blastula The blastula undergoes gastrulation, forming embryonic tissue layers and a gastrula Video: Sea Urchin Embryonic Development Video: Sea Urchin Embryonic Development

10 LE 32-2_3 Zygote Eight-cell stage Cleavage Blastula Cross section of blastula Cleavage Blastocoel Endoderm Ectoderm Gastrula Blastopore Gastrulation

11 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Many animals have at least one larval stage A larva is sexually immature and morphologically distinct from the adult; it eventually undergoes metamorphosis

12 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings All animals, and only animals, have Hox genes that regulate the development of body form Although the Hox family of genes has been highly conserved, it can produce a wide diversity of animal morphology

13 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Concept 32.2: The history of animals may span more than a billion years The animal kingdom includes not only great diversity of living species but also the even greater diversity of extinct ones The common ancestor of living animals may have lived 1.2 billion–800 million years ago This ancestor may have resembled modern choanoflagellates, protists that are the closest living relatives of animals

14 LE 32-3 Stalk Single cell

15 LE 32-4 Hollow sphere of unspecialized cells (shown in cross section) Somatic cells Colonial protist, and aggregate of identical cells Gastrula-like protoanimal Beginning of cell specialization Reproductive cells Infolding Digestive cavity

16 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Neoproterozoic Era (1 Billion–524 Million Years Ago) Early members of the animal fossil record include the Ediacaran fauna

17 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

18 Paleozoic Era (542–251 Million Years Ago) The Cambrian explosion marks the earliest fossil appearance of many major groups of living animals There are several hypotheses regarding the cause of the Cambrian explosion

19 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

20 Mesozoic Era (251–65.5 Million Years Ago) During the Mesozoic era, dinosaurs were the dominant terrestrial vertebrates Coral reefs emerged, becoming important marine ecological niches for other organisms

21 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cenozoic Era (65.5 Million Years Ago to the Present) The beginning of the Cenozoic era followed mass extinctions of both terrestrial and marine animals Modern mammal orders and insects diversified during the Cenozoic

22 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Concept 32.3: Animals can be characterized by body plans Zoologists sometimes categorize animals according to morphology and development A grade is a group of animal species with the same level of organizational complexity A body plan is the set of traits defining a grade

23 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Symmetry Animals can be categorized according to the symmetry of their bodies, or lack of it

24 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Some animals have radial symmetry, the form found in a flower pot

25 LE 32-7a Radial symmetry

26 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings The two-sided symmetry seen in a shovel is an example of bilateral symmetry

27 LE 32-7b Bilateral symmetry

28 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Bilaterally symmetrical animals have: – A dorsal (top) side and a ventral (bottom) side – A right and left side – Anterior (head) and posterior (tail) ends – Cephalization, the development of a head

29 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Tissues Animal body plans also vary according to the organization of the animals tissues Tissues are collections of specialized cells isolated from other tissues by membranous layers

30 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Animal embryos have concentric layers called germ layers that form tissues and organs Ectoderm is the germ layer covering the embryos surface Endoderm is the innermost germ layer Diploblastic animals have ectoderm and endoderm Triploblastic animals also have an intervening mesoderm layer

31 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Body Cavities In triploblastic animals, a body cavity may be present or absent A true body cavity is called a coelom and is derived from mesoderm

32 LE 32-8a Coelom Coelomate Body covering (from ectoderm) Digestive tract (from endoderm) Tissue layer lining coelom and suspending internal organs (from mesoderm)

33 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings A pseudocoelom is a body cavity derived from the blastocoel, rather than from mesoderm

34 LE 32-8b Body covering (from ectoderm) Digestive tract (from endoderm) Muscle layer (from mesoderm) Pseudocoelom Pseudocoelomate

35 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Acoelomates are organisms without body cavities

36 LE 32-8c Body covering (from ectoderm) Wall of digestive cavity (from endoderm) Acoelomate Tissue- filled region (from mesoderm)

37 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Protostome and Deuterostome Development Based on early development, many animals can be categorized as having protostome or deuterostome development

38 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Cleavage In protostome development, cleavage is spiral and determinate In deuterostome development, cleavage is radial and indeterminate

39 LE 32-9a Protostome development (examples: molluscs, annnelids, arthropods) Deuterostome development (examples: echinoderms, chordates) Eight-cell stage Radial and indeterminate Cleavage Eight-cell stage Spiral and determinate

40 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Coelom Formation In protostome development, the splitting of solid masses of mesoderm to form the coelomic cavity is called schizocoelous development In deuterostome development, formation of the body cavity is described as enterocoelous development

41 LE 32-9b Protostome development (examples: molluscs, annnelids, arthropods) Deuterostome development (examples: echinoderms, chordates) Coelom formation Coelom Archenteron Blastopore Mesoderm Enterocoelous: folds of archenteron form coelom Coelom BlastoporeMesoderm Schizocoelous: solid masses of mesoderm split and form coelom

42 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fate of the Blastopore In protostome development, the blastopore becomes the mouth In deuterostome development, the blastopore becomes the anus

43 LE 32-9c Protostome development (examples: molluscs, annnelids, arthropods) Deuterostome development (examples: echinoderms, chordates) Fate of the blastopore Mouth Anus develops from blastopore Anus Mouth Mouth develops from blastopore Anus Digestive tube

44 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Concept 32.4: Leading hypotheses agree on major features of the animal phylogenetic tree Zoologists recognize about 35 animal phyla Current debate in animal systematics has led to the development of two phylogenetic hypotheses, but others exist as well

45 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings One hypothesis of animal phylogeny based mainly on morphological and developmental comparisons

46 LE 32-10 Deuterostomia Radiata Bilateria Protostomia Metazoa Eumetazoa Ancestral colonial flagellate Porifera Cnidaria CtenophoraPhoronida Ectoprocta Brachiopoda EchinodermataChordata Platyhelminthes Mollusca Annelida Arthropoda RotiferaNemerteaNematoda

47 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings One hypothesis of animal phylogeny is based mainly on molecular data

48 LE 32-11 Deuterostomia Radiata Bilateria Lophotrochozoa Metazoa Eumetazoa Ancestral colonial flagellate CalcareaCnidaria Ctenophora Phoronida Ectoprocta Brachiopoda Echinodermata Chordata PlatyhelminthesMollusca Annelida Arthropoda Rotifera Nematoda Ecdysozoa Porifera Silicarea Nemertea

49 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Points of Agreement All animals share a common ancestor Sponges are basal animals Eumetazoa is a clade of animals with true tissues Most animal phyla belong to the clade Bilateria Vertebrates and some other phyla belong to the clade Deuterostomia

50 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Disagreement over the Bilaterians The morphology-based tree divides bilaterians into two clades: deuterostomes and protostomes In contrast, recent molecular studies assign two sister taxa to protostomes: the ecdysozoans and the lophotrochozoans

51 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Ecdysozoans shed their exoskeletons through a process called ecdysis

52 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings

53 Lophotrochozoans have a feeding structure called a lophophore Other phyla go through a distinct larval stage called a trochophore larva

54 LE 32-13 Apical tuft of cilia Mouth Anus Structure of trochophore larva An ectoproct, a lophophorate 100 µm

55 Copyright © 2005 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Future Directions in Animal Systematics Phylogenetic studies based on larger databases will likely provide further insights into animal evolutionary history


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