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The Protestant Reformation. Abuses in the Church Many thought that the pope had become too involved in worldly affairs like politics, government, and.

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Presentation on theme: "The Protestant Reformation. Abuses in the Church Many thought that the pope had become too involved in worldly affairs like politics, government, and."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Protestant Reformation

2 Abuses in the Church Many thought that the pope had become too involved in worldly affairs like politics, government, and wars Many also criticized the lavish lifestyle of church officials and heavy spending on the arts at a time when many were poor and suffering

3 Greed in the Church The Church was also building too much wealth at the expense of the common people – Began to charge fees for performing marriages and baptisms – Church offices had to be purchased (a practice called “simony”) instead of being awarded on merit

4 Indulgences The Church began selling forgiveness to sinners, replacing penance with a fee Objections began when the church began selling “after the fact” indulgences (the purchase of indulgences for dead relatives so that they could be admitted to heaven) to fund work on St. Peter’s Cathedral in Rome

5 Early Protestants John Wycliffe: Englishman who opposed the pope’s role in politics and the Church’s wealth Jan Hus: Czech who criticized the sale of indulgences and was burned at the stake as a heretic → Erasmus: Dutch priest who called for the Church to modernize its rituals reform itself from within

6 Martin Luther German monk and professor Wrote 95 theses (criticisms) about Church practices and posted them on the door of his local church (1517) – argued that indulgences had no Biblical basis – argued that the pope did not have the authority to release souls from Purgatory – argued that Christians can only be saved through faith

7 Luther’s Ideas Spread Thanks to the new printing press, copies of Luther’s theses quickly spread across Europe The Church demanded that Luther admit that he was wrong and retract his arguments – he refused and instead insisted the Church undertake reforms

8 The Edict of Worms In 1521, the pope excommunicated Luther and Holy Roman Emperor Charles V issued the Edict of Worms, declaring Luther a heretic and a criminal By this time, however, Luther had many supporters who helped him remain in hiding to avoid arrest

9 Lutheran Radicalism Luther began to call for more aggressive reforms – rejected idea that good deeds “buy” one entrance to heaven; instead, faith alone gains one entrance – rejected idea that priests have special access to God; instead, everyone has access to God through prayer

10 Lutheran Radicalism wanted the Bible to be printed in the vernacular (commonly spoken languages like English, French, and German) instead of only Latin, so that anyone could read it argued that the Bible was the sole source of religious truth and denied other sources such as the Pope’s decrees

11 Lutheran Radicalism wanted towns to open schools and teach everyone how to read the Bible wanted to simplify church services by simplifying ritual and focusing on sermons (weekly moral lessons) wanted to ban prayer to the Virgin Mary & the saints; end practice of confession, and stop the sale of indulgences wanted to allow priests to marry

12 Luther Succeeds By 1530, Luther’s ideas had caught on in Germany and Scandinavia Luther was supported by nobles, who resented the pope’s interference in politics, and by peasants, who saw his movement as an opportunity to promote social reform Eventually, Emperor Charles V had to back down and legalize Lutheranism in Germany or risk civil war

13 Ulrich Zwingli Swiss priest who pushed for adoption of many of Luther’s reforms, but who had a public dispute with Luther over the Eucharist, leading to a split amongst the early Protestants Killed in battle with Catholics while trying to unite Switzerland as a Protestant state Many of his beliefs were passed on to John Calvin

14 John Calvin Calvin became the ruler of the Swiss city-state of Geneva in 1541 – enacted a strict moral code on the city: no fighting, swearing, or dancing – closed all theaters & banned elaborate and colorful clothing Held many of the same beliefs as Zwingli & Luther, but promoted the radical new idea of “predestination”

15 Predestination Belief that God already knew, even before you were born, whether you were going to Heaven or to Hell – your fate was predetermined Instead of your earthly actions determining your eternal fate, it is your eternal fate which predicts what your earthly actions will be

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17 French Wars of Religion 1562 – 1598 French Calvinists, called “Huguenots,” and Catholics engaged in a struggle for control of France Horrible massacres occurred on both sides, the worst of which was the St. Bartholomew’s Day Massacre in 1572

18 France’s King Henry IV First in the line of Bourbon French kings Ended the religious wars in 1598 with the Edict of Nantes, granting freedom of religion to Huguenots Known as “Good King Henry” for returning peace to France Assassinated in 1610 by a Catholic who resented the Edict of Nantes, leaving the throne to his 9 year-old son, Louis XIII

19 The Reformation Spreads After Lutheranism and Calvinism, hundreds of other Protestant sects were born all over Europe – Anabaptists – rejected the baptism of infants, argued that only adults could knowingly accept Christ Modern Baptists, Quakers, Mennonites, & Amish are all descended from the Anabaptists

20 England’s King Henry VIII A staunch Catholic and a longtime favorite of the pope, BUT … In 1527, he decided that he needed to divorce his wife of 18 years because she had not provided him with a son Henry asked the pope to annul his marriage, but was refused. Ruled

21 The Church of England Angry, Henry seized all of the Church’s property in England and declared himself head of the new Church of England (or Anglican Church) Henry ordered anyone who maintained loyalty to the pope was ordered to be charged with treason and executed. Henry even executed his own top advisor, Sir Thomas More (author of Utopia) for refusing to accept Henry’s break with the Church

22 Henry’s Wives & Children Henry announced his marriage to Catherine of Aragon (who had given him a daughter, Mary) annulled and married his mistress, Anne Boleyn, who gave him another daughter, Elizabeth. After having Anne Boleyn executed for adultery, Henry married Jane Seymour who died from complications shortly after giving birth to Henry’s only son, Edward VI. Henry married three more times after Jane’s death, but no other children were conceived.

23 King Edward VI Became king at age 9, upon Henry VIII’s death Made serious changes to the Church of England: priests could wed, mass was abolished, services conducted in English Died of tuberculosis at age 15 In his will, he left the throne to his cousin, lady Jane Grey, rather than either of his sisters

24 Lady Jane Grey Was queen of England for only 9 days before Edward’s oldest sister, Mary, asserted her claim to the throne Parliament, which had accepted Jane as queen, quickly withdrew their acceptance and declared Mary queen instead Jane was convicted of treason and sentenced to die, but was spared until a Protestant rebellion forced Mary to execute her

25 “Bloody” Mary I Daughter of Henry VIII and his first wife, Catherine of Aragon Devoutly Catholic, married Spain’s King Philip II, striking a Catholic alliance, but he abandoned her when she could produce no children Brutally persecuted Protestants, earning the nickname “Bloody Mary” When she died of cancer after only 5 years on the throne, her half-sister Elizabeth succeeded to the throne Ruled

26 Elizabeth I Daughter of Henry VIII and Anne Boleyn Restored Protestantism in England Queen for 45 years Called the “Virgin Queen” - Unwilling to risk a loss of her power to a husband, she never married and bore no children Under her reign England became a world power, feared by Spain & France

27 Catholic Counter-Reformation Pope Paul III, realized that the Catholic Church needed to make reforms in order to combat the Protestants In 1545, he called the Council of Trent, which met for the next 20 years ( ) to address the criticisms of Luther and others

28 The Council of Trent Reaffirmed traditional Catholic views about the Bible, the sacraments, and the path to salvation Did stop the selling of indulgences Cracked down on corruption and greed within the Church

29 Catholic Counter-Reformation Created the Inquisition to root out heretics & secret Jews and to guide good Catholics away from dangerous Protestant ideas Created the Jesuits, a special order of priests trained to spread Catholicism and combat Protestantism; the Jesuits would go on to become both the foremost missionaries and educators of the Catholic world

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31 Holy Roman Empire A multi-ethnic mainly in central Europe but included Kingdom of Germany, Kingdom of Italy, and Kingdom of Burgundy (France). The Princes within these kingdoms elected the Holy Roman Emperor (Catholic) who ruled the entire empire. Naturally, because this was such a large empire, different regions had differing views on who and how the empire should operate.

32 Thirty Years War Began in Bohemia in the Holy Roman Empire (includes Germany, France and Italy) between Protestants and Catholics, but later involved most of the major powers of Europe over land and political power, particularly the France-Hapsburg rivalry (France and Hapsburgs (of the German-Austria region) were rivals for the HRE.) Long destructive war-famine, bankrupted most involved, destroyed land Peace of Westphalia ended this war, with the understanding that whoever is in control of a country will decide the religion of that country. Breaks up the HRE, creates the German State.

33 Europe 1648

34 The Victims of Reformation Between , tens of thousands were convicted of witchcraft, magic, or devil worship and burned at the stake by fanatical Catholics and Protestants alike Jews were once again targeted for persecution as a group both Catholics and Protestants could agree to hate


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