2 South and Southeast Asia Religion is the main influence on art during this periodBuddhism and Hinduism are the religions of this time; often coexistingSculpture and architecture became the predominant art formsSensuous deities decorated temples and monasteriesMore Buddhist influenced art still exists today than does Hindu art.
3 Buddhism and Its Background Buddha (the Enlightened One) was the original founder of BuddhismThe religion focuses on meditation, being enlightened, and searching for knowledgeBuddha preached about the Wheel of the Law and the Four Noble Truths (both of which are influential in artwork of this period)
4 Robed Male Figure From Mohenjo-dara, Pakistan, ca. 2000 – 1900 BCE A characteristic of early Indus sculpture was its small form.Sculpture was influenced by the elite class and political leaders.
5 Lion Capital Polished sandstone, ca. 250 BCE Capitals such as this were highly decorated sculptural architecture characteristic of this period.These capitals were displayed throughout the Maurya Dynasty during Ashoka’s reign.The Wheel of the Law displayed symbolize the king’s divine authority.
6 Great Stupa From Sanchi, India, third century BCE to first century CE Monument that housed religious relicsRelief sculpture was displayed on the outer architectureConsists of many buildings constructed over the centuries including the viharas and the chaitya halls
7 YakshiDetail of eastern gateway of the Great Stupa; mid-first century BCE to early first century CEGoddesses that personified fertility and vegetationScantily clad, sensuous women used as relief sculptureWorshipped throughout India
8 Standing Yaksha From the Maurya period Yakshas are the male equivalent of yakshisCharacteristics include males depicted as powerful, robust, broad shoulders, and open, staring eyesBuddha statues often resembled yakshas but differ in that they are clothed in a monk’s robe
9 Canonical Buddha Statue Under the Guptas artists formed a canonical figure for the BuddhaMonastic robe covered both shouldersBuddha depicted with soft, full bodySmooth, unadorned surface that is symbolic of Buddha’s spiritualityEyes downcast in meditationImages of the Wheel of the Law are displayed
10 Painted Caves of Ajanta Image of Bodhisattva Padmapani; wall painting in Cave 1, Ajanta, IndiaThese cave paintings are some of the only Indian paintings that remain todayMethod of painting differs from other cultures as they painted on dry plasterResults proved to be less durable than other fresco style paintings in other cultures
11 Hinduism Like Buddhism, Hinduism is a polytheistic religion Sacrifice is essential as it is meant to please deities and gain favor with themHindu deities vary in form and naturesThree most important deities are Shiva, Vishnu, and Devi
12 Dancing Shiva Rock-cut relief in cave temple; late sixth century Shiva is often shown with multiple limbs and/or heads as a sign of his super-human natureHindu deities often represented as part human, part animal
13 Shiva with three faces Shiva as Mahadeva; ca. 550 – 575 AKA the “Great God”Each face shows a different aspect of the deityThe main frontal face displays Shiva’s quiet, balanced demeanorThe right face is a creative femaleThe left face a fierce, destructive male
14 Vishnu asleep on the serpent Anata Detail of façade of Vishnu Temple; early sixth centuryIn this relief Vishnu is meant to be dreaming the universe into realitySurrounding him are other deities including his wife Lakshmi and ShivaAlso included are personifications of Vishnu’s various powers
15 Rock-cut Temples Mamallapuram, India; seventh century Indian architects began to carve freestanding temples from rocky outcroppingsVery rare in relation to other cultures and religionsFive temples were carved out of one huge boulder
16 Rajarajeshvara Temple Thanjavur, India; ca. 1010Enormous, grand temples were created during this periodDedicated to ShivaExterior walls display numerous reliefs in niches
17 Vishvanatha Temple Khajuraho, India; ca. 1000 Vishvanatha is another name for ShivaRising towers resemble rising foothills of the Himalayas, home of ShivaTemples are comparable to actual mountain cave templesDesigned with ideal mathematical proportions
18 Shiva as Nataraja Bronze statue; ca. 1000 One of many examples of portable statues of deitiesUse of hand gestures, symbols, etc. all represent some deeper meaningThey viewed the statue not as a symbol of the god, but as the actual god himselfHindus would care for images such as this by feeding, clothing, bathing, and taking it on outings
19 Death of the Buddha Sri Lanka; ca. 11th to 12th century Largest sculpture in Southeast Asia measuring 46 feet longBuddha’s cousin, and chief disciple, stands at the left mourning his death
20 Borobudur Java, Indonesia; ca. 800 Colossal Buddhist monument Structure contains millions of blocks of volcanic stoneMore than 500 life-size Buddha images1000 relief panels1500 stupas
21 Angkor Wat Angkor, Cambodia; 12th century The largest of all Khmer temple complexesPurpose was to associate the king with his personal god (Vishnu)Five towers symbolize five peaks of Mount MeruStone reliefs glorify Vishnu
22 Bayon Angkor Thom, Cambodia; ca. 1200 Unique in that the combination of circular terraces, towers, and giant faces were usedThe king turned from the Hindu traditions of his ancestors to worshiping the Buddha