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The Art of South and Southeast Asia Before 1200

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Presentation on theme: "The Art of South and Southeast Asia Before 1200"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Art of South and Southeast Asia Before 1200

2 South and Southeast Asia
Religion is the main influence on art during this period Buddhism and Hinduism are the religions of this time; often coexisting Sculpture and architecture became the predominant art forms Sensuous deities decorated temples and monasteries More Buddhist influenced art still exists today than does Hindu art.

3 Buddhism and Its Background
Buddha (the Enlightened One) was the original founder of Buddhism The religion focuses on meditation, being enlightened, and searching for knowledge Buddha preached about the Wheel of the Law and the Four Noble Truths (both of which are influential in artwork of this period)

4 Robed Male Figure From Mohenjo-dara, Pakistan, ca. 2000 – 1900 BCE
A characteristic of early Indus sculpture was its small form. Sculpture was influenced by the elite class and political leaders.

5 Lion Capital Polished sandstone, ca. 250 BCE
Capitals such as this were highly decorated sculptural architecture characteristic of this period. These capitals were displayed throughout the Maurya Dynasty during Ashoka’s reign. The Wheel of the Law displayed symbolize the king’s divine authority.

6 Great Stupa From Sanchi, India, third century BCE to first century CE
Monument that housed religious relics Relief sculpture was displayed on the outer architecture Consists of many buildings constructed over the centuries including the viharas and the chaitya halls

7 Yakshi Detail of eastern gateway of the Great Stupa; mid-first century BCE to early first century CE Goddesses that personified fertility and vegetation Scantily clad, sensuous women used as relief sculpture Worshipped throughout India

8 Standing Yaksha From the Maurya period
Yakshas are the male equivalent of yakshis Characteristics include males depicted as powerful, robust, broad shoulders, and open, staring eyes Buddha statues often resembled yakshas but differ in that they are clothed in a monk’s robe

9 Canonical Buddha Statue
Under the Guptas artists formed a canonical figure for the Buddha Monastic robe covered both shoulders Buddha depicted with soft, full body Smooth, unadorned surface that is symbolic of Buddha’s spirituality Eyes downcast in meditation Images of the Wheel of the Law are displayed

10 Painted Caves of Ajanta
Image of Bodhisattva Padmapani; wall painting in Cave 1, Ajanta, India These cave paintings are some of the only Indian paintings that remain today Method of painting differs from other cultures as they painted on dry plaster Results proved to be less durable than other fresco style paintings in other cultures

11 Hinduism Like Buddhism, Hinduism is a polytheistic religion
Sacrifice is essential as it is meant to please deities and gain favor with them Hindu deities vary in form and natures Three most important deities are Shiva, Vishnu, and Devi

12 Dancing Shiva Rock-cut relief in cave temple; late sixth century
Shiva is often shown with multiple limbs and/or heads as a sign of his super-human nature Hindu deities often represented as part human, part animal

13 Shiva with three faces Shiva as Mahadeva; ca. 550 – 575
AKA the “Great God” Each face shows a different aspect of the deity The main frontal face displays Shiva’s quiet, balanced demeanor The right face is a creative female The left face a fierce, destructive male

14 Vishnu asleep on the serpent Anata
Detail of façade of Vishnu Temple; early sixth century In this relief Vishnu is meant to be dreaming the universe into reality Surrounding him are other deities including his wife Lakshmi and Shiva Also included are personifications of Vishnu’s various powers

15 Rock-cut Temples Mamallapuram, India; seventh century
Indian architects began to carve freestanding temples from rocky outcroppings Very rare in relation to other cultures and religions Five temples were carved out of one huge boulder

16 Rajarajeshvara Temple
Thanjavur, India; ca. 1010 Enormous, grand temples were created during this period Dedicated to Shiva Exterior walls display numerous reliefs in niches

17 Vishvanatha Temple Khajuraho, India; ca. 1000
Vishvanatha is another name for Shiva Rising towers resemble rising foothills of the Himalayas, home of Shiva Temples are comparable to actual mountain cave temples Designed with ideal mathematical proportions

18 Shiva as Nataraja Bronze statue; ca. 1000
One of many examples of portable statues of deities Use of hand gestures, symbols, etc. all represent some deeper meaning They viewed the statue not as a symbol of the god, but as the actual god himself Hindus would care for images such as this by feeding, clothing, bathing, and taking it on outings

19 Death of the Buddha Sri Lanka; ca. 11th to 12th century
Largest sculpture in Southeast Asia measuring 46 feet long Buddha’s cousin, and chief disciple, stands at the left mourning his death

20 Borobudur Java, Indonesia; ca. 800 Colossal Buddhist monument
Structure contains millions of blocks of volcanic stone More than 500 life-size Buddha images 1000 relief panels 1500 stupas

21 Angkor Wat Angkor, Cambodia; 12th century
The largest of all Khmer temple complexes Purpose was to associate the king with his personal god (Vishnu) Five towers symbolize five peaks of Mount Meru Stone reliefs glorify Vishnu

22 Bayon Angkor Thom, Cambodia; ca. 1200
Unique in that the combination of circular terraces, towers, and giant faces were used The king turned from the Hindu traditions of his ancestors to worshiping the Buddha

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