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Paths to Enlightenment The Art of South and Southeast Asia Before 1200.

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Presentation on theme: "Paths to Enlightenment The Art of South and Southeast Asia Before 1200."— Presentation transcript:

1 Paths to Enlightenment The Art of South and Southeast Asia Before 1200

2 Robed Male Figure, Indus Civilization, Pakistan, BCE Most impressive Indus Civilization sculpture Soapstone Depicts male w/ half closed eyes, closely trimmed beard and shaved upper lip Circular emblem Trefoils (cloverlike designs)

3 Seal with seated figure in yogic posture, Indus Civilization, Pakistan, BCE Steatite (local soapstone) seals- most common Indus art objects A boss- circular knob with a hole permitted string to pass through Frequently show: humped bull, elephant, rhino and tiger- all profile Sacred trees

4 BUDDHISM Prince Siddhartha Guatama- THE Buddha, 563 BCE At 29- left palace 6 years later achieved complete enlightenment while meditating under a Pipal tree Preached first sermon at Sarnath- set in motion the Wheel (chakra) of the Law (dharma) The Buddha’s path leads to Nirvana (the end of the painful life, death, rebirth cycle) Buddha in Art 1st century BCE- as robed monk Urna- curl of hair between eyebrows (dot) Ushnisha- ceremonial bump on head Palms of hands and soles of feet imprinted with a wheel Elongated earlobes Halo or sundisk behind head

5 Lion capital of column erected by Ashoka at Sarnath, India, 250 BCE Maurya Dynasty- Ashoka Spread Buddha’s teaching Formed a legal code based on Buddha’s dharma- inscribed on huge monolithic columns Columns along pilgrimage routes 2 pairs of lions on round abacus decorated with 4 wheels and 4 animals

6 Great Stupa, Sanchi, India, 3rd Century BCE to 1st century CE Buddhist monasteries: consist of viharas (monks live), stupas, chaitya halls, temples for sheltering images The Stupa- monument housing relics of the Buddha- solid + filled with rubble Enter gates (at cardinal points of compass) walk clockwise- harmony with cosmos 600 brief inscriptions- showing donations made

7 Yakshi, eastern gateway, Great Stupa, Sanchi, India, 1st century BCE- 1st century BCE Yakshi- goddesses representing fertility and vegetation Reaches up to hold onto mango tree branch- left foot pressed against tree trunk Buddhists later adopted this pose for the Buddha’s mother Early example of eroticism in Indian religious art

8 Interior of Chaitya Hall, Karle, India, 100 CE Best early example of a chaitya hall- used for housing smaller stupas Circular ambulatories (walking paths) allow worshipers to circumambulate the stupa at the back of the sacred cave

9 Life and death fo the Buddha, frieze from Gandhara, Pakistan, 2nd century CE Represents 1st sermon at Sarnath One of the earliest pictoral narratives showing Buddha as human form Frieze shows 4 scenes Attributes of ushnisha, urna and halo Influence of Roman art

10 The Poses of Buddha Mudras, hand-gestures, meaning specific things Dhyana (meditation), with hands overlapping, palms upward Bhumisparsha (earth touching), right hand down reaching to ground, calling to the earth to witness the Buddha’s enlightenment Dharmachakra (wheel of the law, or teaching), two handed gesture, right thumb and index finger forming a circle Abhaya (do not fear), right hand up, palm outward, a gesture of protection and blessing

11 Buddha seated on lion throne, Mathura, India, 2nd century CE Closely linked with the yakshas- male equivalent of the yakshis Robust, powerful males with broad shoulders and open, staring eyes + monk’s robe with right shoulder bare Under Bodhi tree, on lion throne, abhaya gesture, dharma wheel on hands and feet

12 Seated Buddha preaching first sermon, from Sarnath, India, 2nd half of 5th century CE Gupta artists formed the Buddha image canon (general style) Monk robe covering both shoulders, soft, full-bodied Buddha figures, downcast eyes, hands in wheel gesture Below throne- deer + people Buddha sculptures largely replaced the stupas as the norm in Buddhist sacred architecture

13 Interior of Cave 19, Ajanta, India, 2nd half of 5th century CE Multiple images of the carved Buddha image Chaitya hall Standing Buddha flanked by columns into the front of the stupa

14 Bodhisattva Padmapani, wall painting in cave 1, Ajanta, India, 2nd half of 5th century Among a crowd of devotees, both princes and commoners Long dark hair, jeweled crown, holding a blue lotus flower Sensuous form, richly attired Early Indian painting

15 HINDUISM and Hindu Iconography Recognizes NO founder or great prophet Means “Religion of the Indians” Hindu practices and beliefs vary tremendously Ritual sacrifices by Brahmin priests- central to Hinduism Religion of many gods Deities have various natures and take many forms The Three Major Hindu Gods Shiva- the Destroyer + a regenerative force. In human form has multiple limbs and heads, matted hair piled on top of his head, crowned by a crescent moon, serpent scarf, 3rd eye on forehead. Rides the bull, Nandi. Son= elephant- headed Ganesha. Vishnu- the Preserver of the Universe. Shown with 4 arms holding different attributes. Descends to earth to restore balance. Assumes different forms (boar, fish, turtle, Buddha) Devi- great goddess- creates and destroys. Takes many forms and has many names.

16 Boar avatar of Vishnu rescuing the earth, Cave 5, Udayagiri, India, early 5th century Earliest Hindu cave temples Monumental relief sculptures- fully developed religious iconography Political + religious purpose

17 Dancing Shiva, rock-cut relief in cave temple, Badami, India, late 6th century CE Cut into cliff walls above Badami Shiva dancing cosmic dance- 18 arms swinging Some hands hold objects, some form mudras Elephant-headed son (Ganesha) and bull shown

18 Shiva as Mahadeva, cave 1, Elephanta, India, CE Shiva- having three faces. Each showing different aspects of the deity. Quiet, balanced Right face= female (Uma)= creative Left face= grimacing male (Bhairava), curling mustache, cobra earring. Destructive. Represents cycle of death and rebirth

19 Vishnu Temple, Deogarh, India, early 6th century Small, simple, decorated with narrative relief displaying fully developed iconography One of the 1st Hindu temples constructed of stone blocks Elaborately decorated doorway. 3 reliefs-1/side Doorway= transition from dangerous exterior- sacred interior Stone plinth- base

20 Vishnu asleep on the serpent Ananta, Vishnu temple, Deogarh, India, early 6th century 3 reliefs- important Vishnu stories Lakshmi (his wife) massages his legs- he gives birth 4 armed Vishnu dreams universe into reality Smooth bodies + clinging garments

21 Rock-cut temples, India, 2nd half of 7th century Freestanding temples carved from rocky outcroppings Rare. Earliest and most impressive. Called “rathas” (“chariots”= vehicles of the gods)

22 Rajarajeshvara Temple, India, 1010 CE Largest and Tallest temple of its time Inside walled precinct Dedicated to Shiva Reliefs in the niches- Shiva in various forms

23 Vishvanatha Temple, India, 1000 CE Khajuraho, India 1 of more than 20 large and elaborate temples at the site for Vishvanatha (another name for Shiva, “Lord of the Universe.” Similar to mountains (Himalayas= Shiva’s home)

24 Sculptures on temple wall, Vishvanatha Temple, Khajuraho, India, 1000 CE Depicts god and mortals- especially pairs of men and women embracing or engaged in sexual intercourse Erotic reliefs suggest fertility and life and serve as protectors of the sacred precinct

25 Death of the Buddha, Sri Lanka, 11th-12th century One of the largest sculptures in Southeast Asia Influenced by classic Gupta sculptures of India (clinging garments, rounded faces, distinctive hair)

26 Shiva as Nataraja, Punjai, Temple, 1000 CE Portable, cast in solid bronze Under Chola kings Shiva- dances as “Lord of the Dance.” Balancing on one leg atop a dwarf representing ignorance, which god stamps out as he dances 4 arms extended- 2 touching the flaming nimbus (light of glory), mudra “fear not” gesture Not just an image of the god- but the god itself

27 Borobudur, Indonesia, 800 CE Buddhist monument unique in form and meaning Colossal in size- 400 ft per side, 98 ft tall More than 500 life size Buddha images, 1000 relief panels and 1500 stupas of various sizes

28 Harihara, Cambodia, early 7th century Vishnu as Harihara Sculptor divided sculpture in half- Shiva on right side/ Vishnu on left In the round sculpture

29 Vishnu lying on cosmic ocean, Cambodia, 11th century Shows wealth of Khmer kings Bronze. Gold/silver and jewels were inlaid Surviving portion 8 feet long- complete sculpture 20 ft long

30 Angkor Wat, Cambodia, first half of 12th century Engineering marvel- grand complex of temples and palaces Each Khmer king built a temple mountain at Angkor and installed his personal god on top (Shiva, Vishnu, Buddha)

31 King Suryavarman II holding court, Angkor Wat, Cambodia, first half of the 12th century Relief from Angkor Wat King holding court + Vishnu in his various avatars Hierarchy scale Religion + politics

32 Bayon, Angkor Thom, Cambodia, 1200 Jayavarman VII- built more than all other Khmer kings combined Towers carved with giant faces Adopted Buddhism + Lokeshvara “Lord of the World” Combined image with himself


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