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Georgia and the New South Key people and events of this Period

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1 Georgia 1877-1918 and the New South Key people and events of this Period
SS8H7 The student will evaluate key political, social, and economic changes that occurred in Georgia between 1877 and (a, b, c, and d)

2 Reconstruction ends After Reconstruction the outh was still in turmoil. After suffering most of the war damage, how could it resurrect itself and its economy? The south and Georgia picks itself up and tries to rebuild politically and economically.

3 Bourbon Triumvirate “Bourbon” the name of a ruling class in France and “Triumvirate” referring to a ruling body of three. Joseph E. Brown, Alfred Colquitt, John B. Gordon, three men united in a common goal to rebuild the south. They were bound together in the belief that in order for GA’s economy to grow, we needed to expand our ties with the industrial North. Wanted to keep many of the old southern tradition, including the belief in white supremacy Active in GA politics from

4 Joseph E. Brown John B. Gordon
Alfred H. Colquitt

5 Henry Grady “Voice of the New South”
Graduated from University of Georgia In 1880 became managing editor of Atlanta Constitution In one of his most famous speeches he stressed the need for industry in Georgia, particularly the textile mills One of the planners of the Atlanta 1881 International Cotton Exposition

6 Atlanta and the International Cotton Exposition
1895 International and Cotton States Exposition opens It showcased the latest technology in transportation, manufacturing, mining, agriculture, and other fields. Helped attract investor and highlighted Atlanta as a regional business center Booker T. Washington gave the famous speech known as the “Atlanta Compromise “

7 Courtesy of Atlanta History Center Archives

8 Tom Watson: a Powerful Leader of his time
Member of the Georgia General Assembly, the U.S. House in 1890 and Senate in 1920 Represented the Farmer’s Alliance and the Populist Party, opposed national banks, paper money, and wanted a decrease in taxes for low income citizens Succeeded in instituting an experimental program of bringing free delivery of mail to rural areas (Rural Free Delivery bill)

9 Thomas E. Watson When many were supporting Northern industry, Watson supported the farmers and the agrarian traditions

10 The Populists A new political party in the 1890’s
Appealed to white farmers who had been struggling due to low cotton prices, debt and high railroad freight charges Developed out of the Farmers Alliance which was an agricultural society Rose in opposition to the Democratic Party Was popular in many southern states but strongest in Georgia

11 government assistance.
Political Cartoon of the time. Farmers needed government assistance.

12 Rebecca Latimer Felton
First women to serve in the U.S. Senate Entered politics through her husband, William Felton’s political career They lived on a farm outside Cartersville Supported many reform movements such as the end of the convict-lease system and the women’s suffrage movement

13 The 1906 Atlanta Race Riot Occurred September 22-24, 1906
Racial tensions were aggravated by wide spread unemployment White mob attacked innocent blacks after the newspaper erroneously reported that white women had been assaulted by 4 black men Lasted three days until the GA militia stepped in to control the mob and arrested 250 men outside of Brownsville There were varying reports on the death total, it ranged from twenty-five to forty African American deaths, but most accounts agree that only two whites were killed.

14 October 7, 1906, issue of the French publication Le Petit Journal.

15 Leo Frank Case Convicted of the murder of 13 year old Mary Phagan, a young worker at National Pencil factory Because he was Jewish, the superintendent of the pencil factory and from the north; he represented many things southerners resented at the time After the governor commuted his sentence to life in prison, a mob from Mary’s hometown of Marietta took him from jail He was lynched on August 17, 1915

16 Paroles pardoned Frank.
In 1986 the Georgia State Board of Pardons and Paroles pardoned Frank.

17 Jim Crow Laws and the restriction of civil rights
A group of laws in the South that were designed to limit and restrict the civil rights of African Americans Based on white supremacy, these laws separated people of color from whites in schools, housing, jobs, and public gathering places. Through legal means they were prevented from voting Supreme Court supported these laws with the Plessy v. Ferguson decision

18 Jim Crow “White citizen league barring Black voters”
Harpers Weekly 10/31/1874

19 Plessy v. Ferguson “In the pivotal case of Plessy v. Ferguson in 1896, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that racially separate facilities, if equal, did not violate the Constitution. Segregation, the Court said, was not discrimination.” Homer Plessy was arrested in Louisiana for refusing to move from a train seat reserved for whites

20 Separate but rarely equal.

21 Differing ideas for reaching equality
Booker T. Washington W.E.B. Dubois Popular spokesman for African American rights Believed the best way to equal rights was through education, "industry, thrift, intelligence and property.“ Had a network of supporters (many wealthy northern philanthropists) Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute Founder of the Niagara Movement that later becomes the NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) Believed the best way to equal rights was through political representation and the “talented tenth” or the intellectual elite


23 Alonzo Herndon Born a slave and later becomes Atlanta’s first African American millionaire Founder and president of Atlanta Mutual Life Insurance Co Owned the Crystal Palace, a barbershop in Atlanta that served elite white society of Atlanta

24 John and Lugenia Burns Hope
Lugenia was the founder of the Atlanta Neighborhood Union in 1908, which was a women led self-help and social service organization John was an educator and politician that helped with the Niagara Movement and the NAACP John was president of Morehouse College until his death in 1936

25 Causes of World War I First war that involved the major powers of Europe, Italy, France, Germany, Great Britain, Austria-Hungarian Empire and Russia ( ) Tensions over territory in the Balkans Many intertwined factors such as complex alliances between nations A build up of military forces Imperialism and Nationalism The immediate cause was due to the assassination of the Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife, by a Serbian National

26 Six German soldiers in trench with machine gun(
Six German soldiers in trench with machine gun(?) 40 meters from the British during the First World War. The Great Powers under the terror of explosion in Balkans at From top: trenches on the western front, German biplanes, British tank, Vickers machine gun crew with gas masks, battleship Sinking from striking a mine Scenes from WWI

27 The U.S. Enters the War In May 1915, a German sub sinks the ship the Lusitania, which had American cargo and citizens on board Then the British intercept and decode a German telegram known as the Zimmerman telegram which urged Mexico to join the war in exchange for U.S. territory in the southwest R.M.S. Lusitania, hit by torpedos off Kinsale Head, Ireland

28 Georgia’s involvement with the War
Ft. Benning, Ft. Gordon, become military institutions during the war, Ft. McPherson become a POW camp for German sub crew Railroads carried troops and munitions to port Farmers grew crops, tobacco and livestock for troops Textile mills produced fabric for uniforms 3000 Georgians died for the cause

29 Review Key social, economic, and political events in 1877-1918
Analyze how rights were denied to African Americans Role of key African American in Atlanta Reason for WWI and Georgia’s contributions

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