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The New South and the Progressive Era

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1 The New South and the Progressive Era
January 26, 2015

2 The New South and the Progressive Era
SS8H7a: Evaluate the impact of the Bourbon Triumvirate, Henry Grady, International Cotton Exposition, Tom Watson and the Populist, Rebecca Latimer Felton, the 1906 Atlanta Riot, the Leo Frank Case, and the county unit system had on Georgia during this period

3 Georgia’s Redemption Years
“The Redemption Years” is the term used to describe the years after Reconstruction in Georgia Georgia needed to “redeem” themselves from the hardships they had faced The job fell to 3 Democrats – Joseph E. Brown, Alfred H. Colquitt, and John B. Gordon They all wanted stronger economic ties with the industrial North, while at the same time keeping old Southern traditions like white supremacy (the belief that the white race is superior to any others)

4 The Bourbon Triumvirate
Brown, Colquitt, and Gordon were called the Bourbon Triumvirate Bourbon was the last name of a line of French kings that ruled France for over 200 years A triumvirate is a ruling body made up of 3 people So because these 3 were leaders in various ways for almost 50 years, they were called the Bourbon Triumvirate

5 Joseph E. Brown First elected to the Georgia state senate in 1849
He was elected governor of Georgia in 1857, and fought for states’ rights He guided the state through the Civil War, but lost much of his popularity during Reconstruction He left the governor’s office in 1865 when the U.S. government appointed a new Georgia governor He remained in politics, eventually joining the U.S. Senate in 1880 where he stayed until 1891

6 Alfred H. Colquitt In 1849, he was elected to the Georgia state senate
He served in Congress and Georgia’s secession convention before the Civil War He was elected governor of Georgia in 1876 and served until 1882 During his time as governor, the state’s debt was reduced, and in 1877, a new state constitution was approved

7 John B. Gordon Was a Lieutenant General in the Civil War
In 1872, he was elected to the U.S. Senate In 1880, he resigned and went to the work for the railroads In 1886, he began the first of two terms as Georgia’s governor While governor, he reduced the state’s debt and brought new industry to the area

8 The New South After the Redemption Years, came the time period known as the New South era The New South no longer focused solely on agriculture for its economy Industry was growing in the New South Race relations were changing and African-Americans were becoming important to developing the New South The biggest advocate of the New South was Henry W. Grady

9 Henry Grady Known as the “voice of the New South”
He was the managing editor for Atlanta’s newspaper, the Atlanta Constitution He visited Northern cities and spoke about the New South to encourage cooperation between the North and South He helped bring jobs, recognition, and investments to Georgia’s economy He was one of the principal planners for the International Cotton States Exposition

10 International Cotton States Exposition
In 1895, Atlanta hosted 800,000 visitors as a way to showcase the economic recovery of the South (in which cotton played a huge role) It was also used to highlight the region’s natural resources and to lure northern investors Visitors saw new machinery and learned how cotton was made into marketable products

11 Populism Populism is the political philosophy that supports the rights and power of the people in their struggle against the privileged elite Populists were a political party that emerged in the late 1800s to fight for the rights of the poor A controversial national leader of the group was Georgian Tom Watson

12 Tom Watson He was elected to Georgia’s congress in 1882
He was concerned about Georgia’s poor and struggling farmers, both white and black He believed that reform could be possible if both groups worked together He lost his popularity in Georgia when he became a Populist and wasn’t able to win any more elections until he returned to the Democratic party He changed his stance on civil rights, opposing rights for African-Americans, Catholics, and Jews He was elected to the U.S. Senate in 1920, but died 2 years later

13 The Progressive Era Progressivism focused on a large number of economic, political, social, and moral reforms They wanted to outlaw the sale of alcohol, regulate child labor, restrict immigration, and ensure healthy food and drinking water They also wanted to give the public more control over government by changing voting, as well as give women the right to vote

14 Rebecca Latimer Felton
A tireless worker for fairness and justice, Felton, along with her husband, were two of Georgia’s most prominent Progressives She worked for women’s suffrage (the right to vote) and the temperance movement (anti-alcohol) She wrote for the Atlanta Journal where she shared her ideas She is best known as being the first woman in the U.S. Senate She was appointed by Georgia’s governor to take over Tom Watson’s seat after he passed away

15 The County Unit System One of the issues Progressives fought for was for the people to play a larger role in government They accomplished this in Georgia by passing the Neill Primary Act in 1917 which established the county unit system This system allowed smaller, less populated counties to have the same power and influence in terms of voting as the larger counties It remained in effect until 1962

16 Prohibition Another cause of the Progressives was the temperance movement, or the banning of alcohol They accomplished this in 1920, with the passing of the 18th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution which banned the “manufacture and sale of intoxicating liquors” Enforcing the law proved impossible and the Amendment was repealed in 1933 with the passing of the 21st Amendment This is the only time an amendment has been repealed

17 Women’s Suffrage The Women’s Suffrage Movement (women’s right to vote) began to gain steam after the Civil War It was picked up by the Progressives and eventually argued for by Progressive President Theodore Roosevelt The movement worked, and in 1920, the 19th Amendment was passed, which stated that the right to vote will not “be denied by the U.S. or any state” based on gender

18 Questions: 1) What does the term “Redemption Years” describe?
2) Who were the members of the Bourbon Triumvirate? 3) What did Joseph Brown fight for when he was Georgia’s governor? 4) What did Alfred Colquitt accomplish for Georgia when he was governor? 5) What did John Gordon accomplish for Georgia when he was governor? 6) What is the “New South”? 7) Who was the biggest advocate of the New South? 8) How did Henry Grady help Georgia during the New South years? 9) What was the purpose of the International Cotton States Exposition? 10) What is Populism? 11) What was Tom Watson concerned with in Georgia? 12) When was the Progressive Era? 13) What did the Progressive Movement focus on? 14) What is Rebecca Latimer Felton best known for? 15) What did the Neill Primary Act of 1917 do? 16) What was the temperance movement? 17) Which amendment passed Prohibition?

19 Questions, continued… 18) Which amendment repealed Prohibition?
19) What is women’s suffrage? 20) Which president argued for women’s suffrage? 21) Which amendment gave women the right to vote?

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