2DefinitionsAccording to The Social Work Dictionary Robert L Barker (ed) NASW Press 1999TheoryA group of related hypotheses, concepts, and constructs, based on facts and observations that attempt to explain a particular phenomenonnon
3Methods Methods in Social Work The specific types of interventions and other activities used by social workers in their professional practices. The term is used especially by social work educators……..
4Theories examined today Respondent Conditioning or sometimes called Classical ConditioningOperant ConditioningObservational Learning or Social Learning Theory
5Behaviourist Approach in Psychology Emphasises LearningExperiments on Animals can explain human learningConcerned with behaviour and evidence not thoughts
6JB Watson’s Behaviourist Manifesto All behaviour is learned. When born our mind is tabula rasa.We learn how to behave in response to our environment, by forming stimulus-response (S-R) units of behaviour.Behaviours can be 'unlearned' by breaking these previously formed, stimulus-response (S-R) connections.What behaviourism discovered concerning stimulus-response learning in animals is equally applicable to human beings.The mind is private and personal and consists of concepts difficult to study in a scientific way. An organism's observable outcomes - their behaviour - should therefore be the focus of study in psychology.For psychology to be thought a true science, its theories need to be supported by empirical data obtained through the careful and controlled observation and measurement of behaviour in an experimental setting.
7Ivan Pavlov (1849- 1936) Studied salivation in dogs 1891- 1900 Discovered that dogs started to salivate even when there was no food present1903 published a paper stating the taught salivatory response of dogs is learned
10Extinction After a while the dog stops salivating. The conditioned response is inhibited by non-appearance of food
11ReinforcementAfter extinction to resurrect the conditioned response Pavlov had to repeat stage 2 of the conditioning processOccasional re-occurrence of the bell and food together brought back the conditioned response.Reinforcement makes the learned association more permanent
12Spontaneous RecoveryAfter extinguishing the conditioned response by not using reinforcement, later ringing sometimes saw the salivation (conditioned response) re-occur. Generally this was weaker than before.This suggests we never entirely forget what we learn
13Stimulus generalisation If dogs were conditioned to a particular tone then dogs would also respond to a slightly higher or lower tone.Organisms respond to stimuli that seem similar to the original stimulus.
14Stimulus Discrimination Dogs presented with bells very different form the original did not respondThe dogs learned to respond only to particular tones
15Can You Think of Examples of this kind of learning? Mothers learn to discriminate the sound of their own baby.Does the sound of a dentist drill make you respond in particular way?Have any of you been bitten by a dog in childhood?Or developed other phobias?
16An Example Social worker is bitten by dog on a visit Social worker generalises stimuli to all places where dogs might be – parks, beaches, streets etc and starts to avoid theseSocial Worker generalises fear to all dogs – Pekinese, Labradors etc
17Systematic Desensitization A technique used for anxiety and avoidance reactionsAssess the stimuli – in this case dogsEstablish a hierarchy – large fierce dogs, medium size barking dogs, small yappy dogs, quiet LabradorsClient is taught to relaxClient imagines moving up the ladder or hierarchy
19Child with School Phobia Education staff help a child to return to schoolGradually getting used to the bus routeThen the playgroundAnd finally the classroom perhaps for a short periodEventually the child can attend school normally
20Operant Conditioning Theory BF Skinner Actions operate on the environment to produce behaviourBehaviour is altered by its’ consequencesIf the changes are reinforcing then the behaviour is more likely to re-occurBased on the work of BF Skinner
22Skinner’s Theory“the behaviour is followed by a consequence, and the nature of the consequence modifies the organism’s tendency to repeat the behaviour in the future”A reward is a positive reinforcerAn unpleasant consequence is a negative reinforcer
23Two kinds of Reinforcer Primary Reinforcer – a stimulus form the environment whose ability to reinforce our response is based on an innate drive e.g. our need for food water warmth etcSecondary reinforcer – an environmental stimulus that has become associated with a primary reinforcer. Secondary reinforcers help precipitate primary reinforcers e.g. we use money to buy food etc
24Positive Reinforcement The ABC of Behaviour (Hudson and MacDonald 1986) is a useful methodSometimes called a “Functional Analysis of Behaviour”Sometimes people have been reinforcing the wrong behaviourEG a child screams and gets a sweet
25Antecedents of Behaviour and its Consequences Antecedents Behaviour ConsequencesMother refuses Child Screams Gets SweetSweetConcrete reinforcers such as sweets should be gradually withdrawnTo be replaced by social reinforcers such as smiles praise and attention
26Examples in PracticeOperant Behaviour therapy with long stay psychiatric patients to improve and develop social skills and reduce unwanted bizarre behaviourUse of Star Charts and Smiley Faces with childrenChild Guidance clinics helping parent to reward the positive rather than the unwanted behaviourChaining – a technique to help people with learning difficulties learn tasks
27Chaining & Backward Chaining Break a complex behaviour into small tasks or links in a chainReinforce the person for performing the last linkMaking a bed – the last link is tucking in the sheetThen reward the person for performing the last two links and so on
28Negative Reinforcement Termination of something unpleasantE.g. children keep quiet to avoid the pain of being shouted atProblem is the shouting may become rewarding –perhaps some attention is better than noneNot to be confused with punishmentPositive rewarding of wanted behaviour is much more effective
29To decrease or extinguish unwanted behaviour Example of 10 year old child with learning difficulties and communication problems in residential care who regularly whinedIgnore whining – to extinguish this behaviourReward wanted behaviour – stimulated her with mirror and played with her when she was quiet
30Time Out Time Out from reinforcement is an extinction process It can be successful – but must only be used for short periodsLengthy time out is not an extinction procedure but a punishmentThis is ethically wrongAnd also much less effective than a combination of extinction and reward
31Do these theories explain all learning? Does behaviour have to be rewarded for learning to occur?According to Albert Bandura we can learn something without trial and error.
32Social Learning Theory Bandura demonstrated that behaviour can be changed without rewards
33Bandura et al (1963) 96 children age 3-6 years Split into four groups Group 1 saw an adult behave aggressively towards “"Bobo"” doll – shouted punched and hit with hammerGroup 2 saw the above on filmGroup 3 saw this as a cartoonGroup 4 shown no violence
34Bandura et al (1963) ctd Put in room and secretly observed Given toys to play with including a "Bobo" dollChildren's favourite toys were taken to annoy themObserved for 20 minutes
35Bandura et al (1963) ctd Results Group 1 observed adult 99 aggressive actsGroup 2 film 92 aggressive actsGroup 3 cartoon 83 aggressive actsGroup 4 no aggression 54 aggressive acts
36Bandura’s Conclusions Children who had observed aggression were more likely to behave aggressivelyChildren are more likely to copy real aggression than filmed or cartoon aggressionSome models were more likely to be copied than othersChildren more likely to imitate models similar to themselves e.g. the same sex
37Three Effects of Modelling We can learn new skills or ideas by observingSocial skills can be imitated and practisedPeople can practice and learn to inhibit or reduce their fear responses –e.g. if a client is anxious about doing something we can model the action then he can practice the action in a safe environment before doing it for real
38Examples of Social learning The child who observes aggression at home and acts this out at schoolThe importance of care workers modelling appropriate behaviour to clients e.g. calm, confident, attentive, socially skilledCare workers in every day work modelling particular skills e.g. how to make a phone callDemonstrating particular skills deliberately for clients to observe and learnSetting up groups to help people learn particular skills e.g. social skills – how to interact with other people in particular situations
39Implications for Social Care People copy what they observeBehaviour does not always have to be rewarded for learning to occurWorkers need to be extremely self aware about how they behave and actClients will learn from the situations and behaviour they observe in all situations – outings, trips, daily life, and family contact, as well as in formal settings set up to change behaviour
40Questions? Can you identify which methods are used in your placement? Can you distinguish between a theory and a method?Which problems are more likely to be helped by which methods?Which methods involve the client in partnership and empower them?Can you see ethical or moral problems in using some approaches if clients are not involved in setting goals?Can you apply the ABC approach in your placement?
41Video As you watch the video try and identify the tools of assessment What were the conclusions of the initial assessment?The methods used – which of these were covered in the lecture today?Evaluation – were clients involved in this?Were the aims and objectives achieved?