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BTEC National Children’s Play learning and Development: Unit 1Learning aim B: Understand theories and models of development and how they relate to aspects.

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Presentation on theme: "BTEC National Children’s Play learning and Development: Unit 1Learning aim B: Understand theories and models of development and how they relate to aspects."— Presentation transcript:

1 BTEC National Children’s Play learning and Development: Unit 1Learning aim B: Understand theories and models of development and how they relate to aspects of children’s development

2  You will be expected to show an understanding of aspects of theory;  To analyse how theories and models of development relate to observations of children’s development;  To identify the strengths and weaknesses of theories; to apply different theoretical approaches to unfamiliar scenarios;  To compare theoretical approaches to specific areas of child development;  To identify which theories or models of development link to what has been observed and explain why associations have been made;  To be able to use the theories or models of development to make a judgement about what is being observed.  In applying these theories to unfamiliar scenarios, aspects of these theories and models of development will apply to a broader age range than birth up to 8 years, if the child’s performance exceeds that of a 7 year old

3 Theories that consider how children learn behaviours:  ● Bandura’s social learning theory – the concept of modelling and how this theory might be used to explain how children learn behaviours and actions, self-efficacy and empowerment.  ● Pavlov’s theory of classical conditioning – how it might be used to explain the way that children may learn through association.  ● Skinner’s theory of operant conditioning – different types of reinforcements; schedules of reinforcement and how this theory might be used to explain why and how children learn behaviours and repeat actions.

4 Theories that consider how children learn behaviours:  Bandura’s Social Learning Theory

5 Theories that consider how children learn behaviours: Bandura  Albert BanduraPsychologist Albert Bandura proposed what is known as social learning theory. social learning theory.  According to this theory of child development, children learn new behaviors from observing other people. According to this theory of child development, children learn new behaviors from observing other people.  Unlike behavioral theories, Bandura believed that external reinforcement was not the only way that people learned new things. Instead, intrinsic reinforcements such as a sense of pride, satisfaction and accomplishment could also lead to learning. Unlike behavioral theories, Bandura believed that external reinforcement was not the only way that people learned new things. Instead, intrinsic reinforcements such as a sense of pride, satisfaction and accomplishment could also lead to learning.  By observing the actions of others, including parents and peers, children develop new skills and acquire new information By observing the actions of others, including parents and peers, children develop new skills and acquire new information

6 Theories that consider how children learn behaviours: Bandura  Modeling: There are different types of models. There is the live model, and actual person demonstrating the behavior. There can also be a symbolic model, which can be a person or action portrayed in some other medium,, such as television, videotape, computer programs  Behaviors that can be learned through modeling:  Many behaviors can be learned, at least partly, through modeling. Examples that can be cited are, children can watch parents read, cook or play football. Children can also watch the demonstrations of mathematics problems, or seen someone acting bravely and a fearful situation.  Aggression can be learned through models. Much research indicate that children become more aggressive when they observed aggressive or violent models. Moral thinking and moral behavior are influenced by observation and modeling. This includes moral judgments regarding right and wrong which can in part, develop through modeling

7 Theories that consider how children learn behaviours: Bandura  Effects of modeling on behavior:  Modeling teaches new behaviors .Modeling influences the frequency of previously learned behaviors.  Modeling may encourage previously forbidden behaviors.  Modeling increases the frequency of similar behaviors.  Can you think of any examples?

8 Theories that consider how children learn behaviours: Bandura  Self efficacy and empowermenrt  Children are more likely to engage in certain behaviors when they believe they are capable of executing those behaviors successfully. This means that they will have high self-efficacy. In layman's terms self- efficacy could be looked as self confidence towards learning. How self-efficacy affects behavior:  Joy of activities: children typically choose activities they feel they will be successful in doing.  Effort and persistence: Children will tend to put more effort end activities and behaviors they consider to be successful in achieving  Learning and achievement: Children with high self-efficacy tend to achieve more and feel more empowered  Can you think of any examples?

9 Theories that consider how children learn behaviours: Pavlov

10  Classical conditioning: Classical conditioning:  This type of learning involves making an association between a stimulus and a response. This type of learning involves making an association between a stimulus and a response.  Even if you have only a passing knowledge of psychology, chances are that you have probably heard of Pavlov's dogs. Even if you have only a passing knowledge of psychology, chances are that you have probably heard of Pavlov's dogs.  In a classic experiment, Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov discovered that repeatedly pairing the sound of a bell with the presentation of food caused dogs to associate the tone itself with food. Once the association was formed, the sound of the bell alone could make the dogs begin to salivate in anticipation of a meal. In a classic experiment, Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov discovered that repeatedly pairing the sound of a bell with the presentation of food caused dogs to associate the tone itself with food. Once the association was formed, the sound of the bell alone could make the dogs begin to salivate in anticipation of a meal.  Children learn in much the same way, developing associations between things in their environment and potential consequences. For example, an infant might quickly begin to associate the sight of a baby bottle with being fed Children learn in much the same way, developing associations between things in their environment and potential consequences. For example, an infant might quickly begin to associate the sight of a baby bottle with being fed

11 Theories that consider how children learn behaviours: Skinner

12  Operant conditioning As a behaviorist, Skinner believed that internal thoughts and motivations could not be used to explain behavior. Instead, he suggested, we should look only at the external, observable causes of human behavior.As a behaviorist, Skinner believed that internal thoughts and motivations could not be used to explain behavior. Instead, he suggested, we should look only at the external, observable causes of human behavior.  Skinner used the term operant to refer to any "active behavior that operates upon the environment to generate consequences" (1953). In other words, Skinner's theory explained how we acquire the range of learned behaviors we exhibit each and every day. Skinner used the term operant to refer to any "active behavior that operates upon the environment to generate consequences" (1953). In other words, Skinner's theory explained how we acquire the range of learned behaviors we exhibit each and every day.  Examples of Operant ConditioningWe can find examples of operant conditioning all around us. Consider the case of children completing homework to earn a reward from a parent or teacher, or employees finishing projects to receive praise or promotions.In these examples, the promise or possibility of rewards causes an increase in behavior, but operant conditioning can also be used to decrease a behavior. Examples of Operant ConditioningWe can find examples of operant conditioning all around us. Consider the case of children completing homework to earn a reward from a parent or teacher, or employees finishing projects to receive praise or promotions.In these examples, the promise or possibility of rewards causes an increase in behavior, but operant conditioning can also be used to decrease a behavior.

13 Theories that consider how children learn behaviours: Skinner  The removal of an undesirable outcome or the use of punishment can be used to decrease or prevent undesirable behaviors. For example, a child may be told they will lose recess privileges if they talk out of turn in class. This potential for punishment may lead to a decrease in disruptive behaviors The removal of an undesirable outcome or the use of punishment can be used to decrease or prevent undesirable behaviors. For example, a child may be told they will lose recess privileges if they talk out of turn in class. This potential for punishment may lead to a decrease in disruptive behaviors .Components of Operant ConditioningSome key concepts in operant conditioning.Components of Operant ConditioningSome key concepts in operant conditioning  :Reinforcement is any event that strengthens or increases the behavior it follows. :Reinforcement is any event that strengthens or increases the behavior it follows.  There are two kinds of reinforcers: There are two kinds of reinforcers:  Positive reinforcers are favorable events or outcomes that are presented after the behavior. In situations that reflect positive reinforcement, a response or behavior is strengthened by the addition of something, such as praise or a direct reward. Positive reinforcers are favorable events or outcomes that are presented after the behavior. In situations that reflect positive reinforcement, a response or behavior is strengthened by the addition of something, such as praise or a direct reward.  Negative reinforcers involve the removal of an unfavorable events or outcomes after the display of a behavior. Negative reinforcers involve the removal of an unfavorable events or outcomes after the display of a behavior.  In these situations, a response is strengthened by the removal of something considered unpleasant.In both of these cases of reinforcement, the behavior increases. In these situations, a response is strengthened by the removal of something considered unpleasant.In both of these cases of reinforcement, the behavior increases.

14 Theories that consider how children learn behaviours: Skinner  Punishment, on the other hand, is the presentation of an adverse event or outcome that causes a decrease in the behavior it follows. Punishment, on the other hand, is the presentation of an adverse event or outcome that causes a decrease in the behavior it follows.  There are two kinds of punishment: There are two kinds of punishment:  Positive punishment, sometimes referred to as punishment by application, involves the presentation of an unfavorable event or outcome in order to weaken the response it follows Positive punishment, sometimes referred to as punishment by application, involves the presentation of an unfavorable event or outcome in order to weaken the response it follows .Negative punishment, also known as punishment by removal, occurs when an favorable event or outcome is removed after a behavior occurs..Negative punishment, also known as punishment by removal, occurs when an favorable event or outcome is removed after a behavior occurs.  In both of these cases of punishment, the behavior decreases In both of these cases of punishment, the behavior decreases

15 Theories that consider how children learn behaviours  Task:  Read Tarik and Pamina case study and find as many examples as you can of:  Bandura’s social learning theory – the concept of modelling and how this theory might be used to explain how children learn behaviours and actions, self-efficacy and empowerment.  Pavlov’s theory of classical conditioning – how it might be used to explain the way that children may learn through association.  Skinner’s theory of operant conditioning – different types of reinforcements; schedules of reinforcement and how this theory might be used to explain why and how children learn behaviours and repeat actions.


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