Presentation on theme: "On the Evidence for the Death and Resurrection of Jesus Christ."— Presentation transcript:
On the Evidence for the Death and Resurrection of Jesus Christ
LOVE Eternal past any created love being in Adam (rejection of love; sin) Eternal future Creator Love Being Redeems Back Created Love Beings Death (Separation from God and Love) In Christ John 3:16 for God so loved the world that he gave his only begotten son that whoever believes in him will not perish but have everlasting life
Extra Biblical Historical Perspective Denies “Christ-Myth” Idea Cornelius Tacitus (Born A.D )-Roman historian who alludes to the death of Christ in 112 A.D. when writing about the reign of Nero: "...person commonly called Christians, who were hated for their enormities. Christus, the founder of the name, was put to death by Pontius Pilate, procurator of Judea in the reign of Tiberius..." Annals Lucian of Samosata, a satirist in the second century, spoke scornfully of Christians: "...the man who was crucified in Palestine because he introduced this new cult into the world..." The Passing Peregrinus. Flavius Josephus (born A.D. 37), who was a Jewish historian and Pharisee, mentioned Jesus several times in his writings: "Now there was about this time, Jesus, a wise man, if it be lawful to call him a man, for he was a doer of wonderful works, a teacher of such men as receive the truth with pleasure..." Antiquities Seutonius (A.D. 120), who was a Roman historian, mentioned Jesus in his writings: "As the Jews were making constant disturbances at the instigation of Christus, he (Claudius) expelled them from Rome." Life of Claudius Pliny, the Younger, (A.D. 112), who was Governor of Bithynia, wrote the Emperor Trajan seeking counsel as to how to treat the Christians: He "made men to curse Christ, which a genuine Christian cannot be induced to do." Epistles
Extra Biblical Historical Perspective (cont) Tertullian, a theologian of Carthage wrote in A.D. 197: "Tiberius accordingly, on those days the Christian name made its entry into the world, having himself received intelligence from the truth of Christ's Divinity, brought the matter before the senate, with his own decision in favor of Christ." Apology V2. Thallus, a Samaritan historian, wrote in 52 A.D. about an eclipse of the Sun: "...the eclipse of the Sun-unreasonably, as it seems to me at the time of the full moon, and it was at the season to the Paschal full moon that Christ died." Mara Bar-Serapion wrote a letter to his son about Christ around 73 A.D.: "What advantage did the Jews gain from executing their wise King? It was just after that that their kingdom was abolished." Manuscript located in the British Museum. Justin Martyr (A.D. 150) wrote to Emperor Antoninus Pius about Pilate's report: "They pierced my hands and my feet are a description of the nails that were fixed in His hands and His feet on the cross; and after He was crucified, those who crucified Him cast lots for His garments, and divided them among themselves." Apology 1.48 F. F. Bruce, currently a professor at University of Manchester, discusses the fallacies in people not believing in the man Jesus: "Some writers may toy with the fancy of a 'Christ-myth,' but they do not do so on the ground of historical evidence. The historicity of Christ is as axiomatic for an unbiased historian as the historicity of Julias Ceasar. It is not historians who propagate the 'Christ-myth' theory.“
Jerusalem at the time of Christ Edwards, Gabel, Hosmer, “On the Death of Jesus Christ,” JAMA, 1986
Date of Jesus’ Last Week I.Jesus last week of ministry was prophesied by Daniel in Dan 9: A. Dan 9:25 The commandment to rebuild the walls of Jerusalem was decreed by the Persian King Artaxerxes Longimanus on March 14, 445 B.C. according to Neh 2:1. B. A period of "seven" weeks (49 days representing years) and 62 weeks (434 years) followed this date as the Messiah would be cut off. C.This 483 Biblical Lunar years (a 360 day year versus our current Solar year) brings us to April 6, 32 A.D. which was Palm Sunday starting the final week of Jesus' life. D. Luke 19:41-44 states that although some worshipped and praised Jesus as their Messiah, many did not recognize Him. He beheld the city and wept over it saying, If you would have known at least in this your day...Because you knew not the time of your visitation. II.Three Passovers are recorded in John with the final one indicating the time of Jesus' death. A.John 2:13 Spring of 29 A.D. B.John 5:1 Spring of 30 A.D. C.John 6:4 Spring of 31 A.D. D.John 11:55, John 19:14 Spring of 32 A.D.
The Passion Week I.Mat 21:1-27:60 II.The Passion week was one filled with conflict, turmoil, and violence up until Jesus sacrificed Himself on the cross. A. This one week period takes up one-third of Matthew, one-fourth of Mark, and one- seventh of Luke. B. The reason for so much space given in the Synoptic Gospels was because of the importance of this section. 1. This was the purpose of Creator becoming a man. 2. This was to be the crucial experience by which Satan would be forever defeated. 3. This was The time for the restoration of the Creator with His creation. C.Sunday: Matt 21:1-11 A day of demonstration D.Monday: Mat 21:12-19 A day of authority E.Tuesday: Mat 21:20-26:16 A day of conflict F.Wednesday: A day of rest G.Thursday: Mat 26:17-35 A day of preparation
Friday: A Day of Suffering Mat 26:30-27:60 Midnight to 2 a.m.-Gethsemane: prayer, betrayel, and arrest (26:36-56). A.John 18:3 The Sanhedrin were accompanied by the Spiera (Greek word for band) which represented 760 infantry and 240 calvery (Roman soldiers). B.John 18:4 The Sanhedrin may have thought that they would get some Zealot resistance. Jesus asked, "Whom do you seek?" as they all fell down.
Friday: A Day of Suffering Mat 26:30- 27:60 (Cont) 3 to 5 a.m.-Trials before Jewish authorities (religious) A.Because Passover was dawning, haste was necessary to convict Jesus so a night court session was held. B.Annas, the emeritus high priest (John 18:13-23) who was influential, questioned Jesus's teachings and since no fault could be found. Hence, they tried to get Him to confess to Messiahship so that they could convict Him of blasphemy. Recall that the principle thematic question was: "Who is Jesus?“ C.Caiaphas, the ruling high priest (26:57-68). 1. Jesus is punched 2. Jesus is spat upon 3. Jesus is pushed around (bullied) 4. Jesus is physically beat up D.Denials of Peter (26:69-75); Jesus experiences emotional rejection E.Sanhedrin (27:1). F.Suicide of Judas (27:3-10).
Friday: A Day of Suffering Mat 26:30- 27:60 (Cont) 6 to 9 a.m.-Trials before the Roman authorities (civil). A.Pilate (27:2,11-14) was the Jerusalem ruler: “Are you the King of the Jews?” B.Herod Antipas (Luke 23:7-12) was the Galilean ruler. Luke mentions the sending of Jesus to Antipas because Joanna and Chuza (Meneheim) were leaders in Luke's Syrian Church at Antioch, and Chuza was a boyhood friend of Antipas. 1.Jesus is verbally abused 2.Jesus is extremely tired by now with no sleep C.Pilate (27:15-31) sentences Jesus to death under the pressure from the Jews with the label "The King of the Jews" as daylight dawns on the eve of Passover. John 18:37 Jesus reveals that His Kingdom is not of this world. Pilate sighs in relief as Jesus' kingdom is not of the Zealots; he should have feared tremendously from being in the presence of the Creator of the Universe. 1. Jesus is scourged/whipped 2. Jesus beard is pulled out (Is 50:6) 3. Jesus is stripped naked in humiliation 4. Jesus is robed as a mock king 5. Jesus has mock crown of thorns painfully placed into his head 6. Guards kneel down and mock Jesus 7. Guards spit on Jesus in humiliation 8. Guards beat Jesus in the head 9. Guards ripped the robe off Jesus back as the blood had probably clotted onto the robe to reopen the wounds 10. Guards put Jesus own clothes back on Him
Roman Scourgings Edwards, Gabel, Hosmer, “On the Death of Jesus Christ,” JAMA, 1986
Friday: A Day of Suffering Mat 26:30- 27:60 (Cont) 9 a.m. to 10 a.m. A.The preparation of Jesus for the Crucifixion 1.Carrying the cross 2.Nails in hands and feet 3.Crown of thorns in head
Roman Crucifixions Edwards, Gabel, Hosmer, “On the Death of Jesus Christ,” JAMA, 1986
Iron spikes in Jesus’ hands Between Carpals and Radius Edwards, Gabel, Hosmer, “On the Death of Jesus Christ,” JAMA, 1986
Nailing of Jesus’ Feet in Second Inter Metatarsal Space Edwards, Gabel, Hosmer, “On the Death of Jesus Christ,” JAMA, 1986
Friday: A Day of Suffering Mat 26:30- 27:60 (Cont) 10 a.m. to 3 p.m. A.Crucifixion (27:31-54). 1."Father, forgive them" (Luke 23:34). 2."Today you will be with me in paradise" (Luke 23:43). 3."Woman, behold your son" (John19:26). 4."My God, My God why have you forsaken me" (Mat 27:46). 5."I thirst" (John 19:28). 6."It is finished" (John19:30). 7."Father, into your hands I commit my spirit" (Luke 23:46). B.Death (27:50-56): The centurion answered the question at the end of Jesus' earthly life in Mat 27:54 "Truly this was the Son of God."
Respiration During Crucifixion Edwards, Gabel, Hosmer, “On the Death of Jesus Christ,” JAMA, 1986
Breathing During Crucifixion (2) With elbows extended and shoulders abducted, respiratory muscles of inhalation are passively stretched and thorax is expanded. With elbows flexed and shoulders adducted and with weight of body on nailed feet, exhalation is accomplished as active, rather than passive, process. Breaking legs below knees would place burden of exhalation on shoulder and arm muscles alone and soon would result in exhaustion asphyxia.
Spear in the Chest Edwards, Gabel, Hosmer, “On the Death of Jesus Christ,” JAMA, 1986 Spear on side indicates death already occurred!
Physical Progression of Jesus’ Death Loss of sleep led to started an initial exhausted state Scourging that led to blood loss followed by preshock trauma Hypovolemia, hyperemia, and perhaps an altered coagulable state, friable non-infective thrombotic vegetations could have formed on the aortic or mitral valve due to further spikes in hands, feet, and crown of thorns. (These then could have dislodged and embolized into the coronary circulation and thereby produced an acute transmural myocardial infarction) Further exhaustion asphyxia with lack of oxygen in trying to breath on the cross Pleural and pericardial effusions (as evidenced by water and blood from spear) Death by cardiac rupture (died of a broken heart)
Resurrection of Jesus Christ I. "On the fact of the resurrection of Christ's literal body hangs the truth of the gospel's message of salvation and the basis of Christianity." Irving Jensen II. The authenticity of eye-witnesses is what establishes a historical fact. A. Open tomb (John 20:1,2) G. B. Hardy has stated,"Here is the complete record: Confucious' tomb...occupied; Buddha's tomb...occupied; Mohammed's tomb...occupied; Jesus' tomb...EMPTY." B. Recovered graveclothes (John 20:3-8) C. Appearances of the risen Lord (mentioned earlier). D. Pilate's orders to seal and guard the tomb (Mat 27:62-66). E. Removal of the stone by an angel (Mat 28:1-3). F. Terror of the Roman guards (Mat 28:4). G. Angel's message to the women (Mat 28:5-6). H. Guards' report to the chief priests (Mat 28:11). I. Chief priest's bribe to the guards (Mat 28:12-13). J. Lie of the Roman guards (Mat 28:15). K. Certainty of Christ's death (John 19:34-42). L. Certainty of Christ's burial (Mark 15:42-47). M. Certainty that Christ's body was not stolen (Mat 28:4-15). N. Changed lives of the disciples; they were all martyred except for John. O. Conversions like that of Saul of Tarsus. P. Two-thousand-year witness of the Holy Spirit, the Church, and the Holy Scriptures. III.In Jesus' life, death, and resurrection, He released mankind from the three-fold universal plague. He is continuing this same business today. A. Guilt from past sins. B. Perverseness of present living. C. Anxiety of an unknown future. D. Jesus' ministry today is that of an intercessor (Heb 7:25) as the Prophet, Priest, and King. IV.Jesus will enter human time and space again not as a lowly servant but as an exalted King. Rev 22:21 "Even so, come quickly, Lord Jesus."
Arguments Against the Resurrection The Wrong Tomb: A hypothesis propounded by Kirsopp Lake assuming that the women who reported that Jesus’ body was missing had mistakenly gone to the wrong tomb. Counterpoint: If so, then the disciples and Roman guards who followed up also went to the wrong tomb Hallucinations: A hypothesis that people who thought they saw Jesus after the resurrection hallucinated Counterpoint: If this is true, why did so many people see Him who were unrelated? Where was the body then? And why didn’t they produce it to refute the resurrection argument? Jesus Swooned: A hypothesis popularized by Venturini several centuries ago, who said that Jesus did not die but just collapsed. Counterpoint: the evidence for the death is overwhelming and where was the body in the final death then? Jesus’ Body was Stolen: a hypothesis that the disciples stole the body Counterpoint: given that the Roman guards were present and the depression and cowardice of the disciples argue against their suddenly becoming so brave and daring as to face a detachment of soldiers at the tomb and steal the body.
Historical Facts of Resurrection Fact #1. Jesus was buried by Joseph of Arimethea in a tomb 1. Jesus’ burial was multiply attested by early, independent sources. 2. As a member of the Jewish Sanhedrin that condemned Jesus, Joseph of Arimathea is unlikely to be a Christian invention. Fact #2. On the Sunday after the crucifixion, Jesus’ tomb was found empty by a group of his women followers. 1. Jesus’ tomb was multiply attested by early, independent sources. 2. Tomb was discovered by women (in a patriarchical society this was not a bragging point). Fact #3. On different occasions and under various circumstances different individuals and groups of people experienced appearances of Jesus alive from the dead. 1. Paul’s list of 500 eyewitnesses to Jesus’ resurrection, including hostile witnesses, appearances guarantees that such appearances occurred 2. The appearance narratives in the Gospels provide multiple, independent attestation of the appearances. Fact #4. The original disciples suddenly and sincerely came to believe that Jesus was risen from the dead despite their having every predisposition to the contrary. 1. Their leader was dead. 2. Jewish beliefs about the afterlife precluded anyone’s rising from the dead to glory and immortality before the general resurrection of the dead at the end of the world. Best Interpretation of the facts: Jesus rose from the dead!
Nelson Glueck, Palestinian Archeologist, wrote in Rivers in the Desert, “It may be stated categorically that no archeological discovery has ever contradicted a biblical reference. Scores of Archeological findings have been made which confirm in exact detail, historical statements in the bible.” F.F. Bruce, Historian “There is no body of ancient literature in the world which enjoys such a wealth of good textual attestation as the New Testament.” AuthorDate WrittenEarliest CopySpan #copies Caeser BC900AD1000yrs10 Plato BC900 AD1200yrs7 Aristotle BC1100 AD1400yrs49 Homer 900 BC400 BC500yrs643 (Illiad) New AD125 AD25yrs 24,000 Testament Biblical Statements are Historical