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Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 24 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley Which of the following is NOT one of the.

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Presentation on theme: "Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 24 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley Which of the following is NOT one of the."— Presentation transcript:

1 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 24 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley Which of the following is NOT one of the tectonic stresses experienced by Earth’s crust? A.Compressional. B.Tensional. C.Torsional. D.Shear.

2 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 24 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley Which of the following is NOT one of the tectonic stresses experienced by Earth’s crust? A.Compressional. B.Tensional. C.Torsional. D.Shear. Explanation: Torsion is a rotational stress. Sections of crust can be pushed together, pulled apart, or slid past one another.

3 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 24 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley When rock deforms elastically, A.it is permanently deformed after stress is removed. B.it returns to its original size and shape after stress is removed. C.it stretches irreversibly, even after stress is removed. D.it fractures along planes of weakness when stress is applied.

4 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 24 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley When rock deforms elastically, A.it is permanently deformed after stress is removed. B.it returns to its original size and shape after stress is removed. C.it stretches irreversibly, even after stress is removed. D.it fractures along planes of weakness when stress is applied. Explanation: Elastic means behavior like a rubber band—it returns to original size and shape after stressed and released.

5 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 24 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley When rock deforms plastically, A.it is permanently deformed after stress is removed. B.it returns to its original size and shape after stress is removed. C.it stretches irreversibly, even after stress is removed. D.it fractures along planes of weakness when stress is applied.

6 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 24 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley When rock deforms plastically, A.it is permanently deformed after stress is removed. B.it returns to its original size and shape after stress is removed. C.it stretches irreversibly, even after stress is removed. D.it fractures along planes of weakness when stress is applied. Explanation: Plastic means behavior like chewing gum—it stays deformed when stressed and released.

7 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 24 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley When rock is stressed beyond its elastic limit, A.minerals undergo retrograde metamorphism. B.the rock loses heat. C.a new elastic limit is established. D.it deforms plastically or breaks.

8 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 24 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley When rock is stressed beyond its elastic limit, A.minerals undergo retrograde metamorphism. B.the rock loses heat. C.a new elastic limit is established. D.it deforms plastically or breaks. Explanation: Folds and faults form when the elastic limit is surpassed. Cold rock is more brittle than warm rock, so warm rock deforms plastically to produce folds, and cold rock breaks to produce faults. Confining pressure also plays a role in determining elastic and plastic limits.

9 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 24 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley Rock in the center (or core) of a syncline is A.younger than rock horizontally away from the center. B.the same age as rock horizontally away from the center. C.older than rock horizontally away from the center. D.younger or older than rock horizontally away from the center.

10 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 24 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley Rock in the center (or core) of a syncline is A.younger than rock horizontally away from the center. B.the same age as rock horizontally away from the center. C.older than rock horizontally away from the center. D.younger or older than rock horizontally away from the center. Explanation: Think of a syncline as being shaped like a bowl. Sedimentary rocks are deposited horizontally with newer, younger rock on top of older rock. Flatten out the bowl by squishing and spreading it out. If the bowl was layered rock, can you see that younger rock forms the outside or “upper” part (deposited last)?

11 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 24 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley Rock in the center (or core) of an anticline is A.younger than rock horizontally away from the center. B.the same age as rock horizontally away from the center. C.older than rock horizontally away from the center. D.younger or older than rock horizontally away from the center.

12 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 24 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley Rock in the center (or core) of an anticline is A.younger than rock horizontally away from the center. B.the same age as rock horizontally away from the center. C.older than rock horizontally away from the center. D.younger or older than rock horizontally away from the center. Explanation: Think of an anticline as shaped like an “A” or an upside-down bowl. Sedimentary rocks are deposited horizontally with newer, younger rock on top of older rock. Flatten out the “A” by squishing and spreading it out. If the “A” was layered rock, can you see that younger rock forms the outside or “upper” part (deposited last)?

13 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 24 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley Normal faults are the result of A.compression. B.tension. C.shear. D.a combination of compression, tension, and shear.

14 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 24 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley Normal faults are the result of A.compression. B.tension. C.shear. D.a combination of compression, tension, and shear. Explanation: The production of normal faults is one way that Earth’s crust stretches.

15 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 24 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley Reverse faults are the result of A.compression. B.tension. C.shear. D.a combination of compression, tension, and shear.

16 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 24 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley Reverse faults are the result of A.compression. B.tension. C.shear. D.a combination of compression, tension, and shear. Explanation: The production of reverse faults is one way that Earth’s crust thickens.

17 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 24 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley Strike-slip faults are the result of A.compression. B.tension. C.shear. D.a combination of compression, tension, and shear.

18 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 24 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley Strike-slip faults are the result of A.compression. B.tension. C.shear. D.a combination of compression, tension, and shear. Explanation: Strike-slip faults have horizontal movement caused by shearing.

19 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 24 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley For a normal fault, the hanging wall moves A.sideways. B.obliquely. C.up. D.down.

20 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 24 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley For a normal fault, the hanging wall moves A.sideways. B.obliquely. C.up. D.down. Explanation: A block of rock of a certain size will be lengthened horizontally if a fault forms and the hanging wall moves down. Normal faults are the result of tension.

21 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 24 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley For a reverse fault, the hanging wall moves A.sideways. B.obliquely. C.up. D.down.

22 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 24 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley For a reverse fault, the hanging wall moves A.sideways. B.obliquely. C.up. D.down. Explanation: A block of rock of a certain size will be shortened horizontally if a fault forms and the hanging wall moves up. Reverse faults are the result of compression.

23 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 24 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley Mountains are grouped into all the following classifications EXCEPT A.normal-thrust mountains. B.folded mountains. C.upwarped mountains. D.fault-block mountains.

24 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 24 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley Mountains are grouped into all the following classifications EXCEPT A.normal-thrust mountains. B.folded mountains. C.upwarped mountains. D.fault-block mountains.

25 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 24 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley Which of the following is NOT one of the three main types of volcanoes? A.Composite cone. B.Shield volcano. C.Cinder cone. D.Ash cone.

26 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 24 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley Which of the following is NOT one of the three main types of volcanoes? A.Composite cone. B.Shield volcano. C.Cinder cone. D.Ash cone.

27 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 24 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley Composite cones are formed by the eruption of A.fluid basaltic lava. B.alternating layers of lava, ash, and mud. C.ash, cinders, glass, and lava fragments. D.massive amounts of ash.

28 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 24 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley Composite cones are formed by the eruption of A.fluid basaltic lava. B.alternating layers of lava, ash, and mud. C.ash, cinders, glass, and lava fragments. D.massive amounts of ash. Explanation: A composite cone is so named because it consists of layers of differing consistency.

29 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 24 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley Where is most of Earth’s fresh water found? A.Lakes. B.Ice caps and glaciers. C.Rivers. D.Underground.

30 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 24 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley Where is most of Earth’s fresh water found? A.Lakes. B.Ice caps and glaciers. C.Rivers. D.Underground. Explanation: 79% of Earth’s fresh water is currently locked up in ice! Less than 21% has the potential for use by land-based life.

31 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 24 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley The continental rise is A.the elevated land next to a beach. B.the sloping region between the continental shelf and deep ocean. C.areas just barely above sea level. D.the wedge of sediment at the base of the continental slope.

32 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 24 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley The continental rise is A.the elevated land next to a beach. B.the sloping region between the continental shelf and deep ocean. C.areas just barely above sea level. D.the wedge of sediment at the base of the continental slope. Explanation: The continental rise is created by submarine “landslides” called turbidity currents.

33 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 24 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley Ocean waves break at the shoreline because A.the wave’s circular motion touches the seafloor in shallower water. B.the wave has nowhere to go. C.the wave’s circular motion increases, causing the wave to topple. D.transverse currents disrupt normal wave behavior.

34 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 24 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley Ocean waves break at the shoreline because A.the wave’s circular motion touches the seafloor in shallower water. B.the wave has nowhere to go. C.the wave’s circular motion increases, causing the wave to topple. D.transverse currents disrupt normal wave behavior. Explanation: Ocean waves have longitudinal and circular components. The circular motion touches the ocean floor when the water depth is less than half the wave’s wavelength.

35 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 24 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley The compound that constitutes the majority of dissolved substances in ocean water is A.sodium sulfate. B.magnesium chloride. C.sodium chloride. D.sodium fluoride.

36 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 24 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley The compound that constitutes the majority of dissolved substances in ocean water is A.sodium sulfate. B.magnesium chloride. C.sodium chloride. D.sodium fluoride.

37 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 24 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley Precipitation that does not infiltrate becomes A.groundwater. B.the water table. C.soil moisture. D.runoff.

38 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 24 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley Precipitation that does not infiltrate becomes A.groundwater. B.the water table. C.soil moisture. D.runoff. Explanation: If water does not infiltrate, it stays on the surface and flows downslope.

39 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 24 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley The maximum amount of water a particular soil can hold is determined by the A.porosity. B.permeability. C.degree of saturation. D.amount of recharge.

40 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 24 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley The maximum amount of water a particular soil can hold is determined by the A.porosity. B.permeability. C.degree of saturation. D.amount of recharge. Explanation: Porosity is the percentage of open space in a soil. Water can only occupy open spaces—the higher the porosity, the larger the amount of water that can be held.

41 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 24 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley The maximum amount of water that can flow through a particular soil is determined by the A.porosity. B.permeability. C.degree of saturation. D.amount of recharge.

42 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 24 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley The maximum amount of water that can flow through a particular soil is determined by the A.porosity. B.permeability. C.degree of saturation. D.amount of recharge.

43 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 24 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley The work of surface water does all of the following EXCEPT A.erosion. B.deposition. C.land subsidence. D.delta formation.

44 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 24 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley The work of surface water does all of the following EXCEPT A.erosion. B.deposition. C.land subsidence. D.delta formation. Explanation: Groundwater withdrawal causes land subsidence.

45 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 24 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley Which of the following does the most work in deserts? A.Water. B.Wind. C.Ice. D.Groundwater.

46 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 24 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley Which of the following does the most work in deserts? A.Water. B.Wind. C.Ice. D.Groundwater. Explanation: Wind is an important shaper of land in the desert, creating such landforms as sand dunes. But running water is still the dominant agent of erosion and deposition in the desert.

47 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 24 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley Erosion by alpine glaciers creates A.V-shaped valleys. B.U-shaped valleys. C.drumlins. D.moraines.

48 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 24 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley Erosion by alpine glaciers creates A.V-shaped valleys. B.U-shaped valleys. C.drumlins. D.moraines. Explanation: V-shaped valleys are characteristic of stream erosion. Drumlins and moraines are depositional features, not erosional.

49 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 24 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of continental glaciation? A.Striations. B.U-shaped valleys. C.Drumlins. D.Moraines.

50 Conceptual Integrated Science—Chapter 24 Copyright © 2007 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Addison-Wesley Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of continental glaciation? A.Striations. B.U-shaped valleys. C.Drumlins. D.Moraines. Explanation: U-shaped valleys are characteristic of alpine glaciation.


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