Presentation on theme: "Compiled by Woodruff Using Holt Earth Science Text."— Presentation transcript:
Compiled by Woodruff Using Holt Earth Science Text
Deformation: the shape of a rock changes due to stress Types of stress: Compression: stress caused when objects are squeezed together. Occurs where tectonic plates collide. Tension: stress caused when objects are stretched. Occurs where tectonic plates move apart.
Folding: the bending of rock layers caused by stress. Types of folding: Anticlines: upward-arching folds in rock Synclines: downward, through-like folds in rock Monocline: folded rock layers where both ends of the fold are horizontal.
Fault: the surface along which rocks break and slide past each other. Fault block: the blocks of rock on either side of a fault. Footwall: Fault block with more rock at the bottom of the fault block. You could walk up this block. Hanging wall: Fault block with more rock at the top of the fault block. You could hang from this block.
Normal Fault: Hanging wall moves down relative to the footwall. Caused by tension at the fault.
Reverse Fault: the hanging wall moves up relative to the footwall. Caused by compression at the fault.
Strike-Slip Fault: when fault blocks break and move horizontally to each other.
Folded mountains: formed when rock layers are squeezed together and pushed upwards. Example: Himalayan Mountains. Wet Graham Crackers.
Fault Block Mountains: Formed when tension causes large blocks on the surface to drop down relative to other blocks. Example: Grand Tetons in Wyoming.
Volcanic Mountains: Usually form at convergent boundaries, but can also form in the ocean. Pacific Ring of Fire has lots of volcanoes!
Uplift: The rising of regions of the Earth’s Surface. Caused by many different factors including rebound: when a block uplifts because pressure from above has been removed. Subsidence: the sinking of regions of the crust to lower elevations. Caused by blocks being pulled apart or rocks cooling down.