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Section 1.  Stress is a force that acts on rock to change its shape or volume.  A rock’s volume is the amount of space that the rock takes up.  Stress.

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Presentation on theme: "Section 1.  Stress is a force that acts on rock to change its shape or volume.  A rock’s volume is the amount of space that the rock takes up.  Stress."— Presentation transcript:

1 Section 1

2  Stress is a force that acts on rock to change its shape or volume.  A rock’s volume is the amount of space that the rock takes up.  Stress adds energy to the rock  3 Different kinds of stress in the crust:  Tension  Compression  Shearing

3  Tension pulls the crust stretching the rock so that it becomes thinner in the middle. Think of when we pulled apart the Milky Way Bar.  Tension occurs when 2 plates pull apart.

4  Compression squeezes rock until it folds or breaks  One plate pushes against another.

5  Shearing is a type of stress that pushes mass of rock in two opposite directions  Shearing causes rock to break or slip apart or change its shape

6  A fault is a break in the rock of the crust where rock surfaces slip past each other.  Most faults occur along plate boundaries, where the forces of plate motion push or pull the crust so much that the curst breaks.  There are 3 main types of faults:  Normal Faults  Reverse Faults  Strike-Slip Fault

7  Tension in Earth’s crust pulls rock apart  In a normal fault, the fault is at an angle, so one block of rock lies about the fault while the other block lies below.  The block of rock that lies above is called the hanging wall.  The block of rock that lies below is called the footwall.  In a normal fault, the hanging wall slips downward.

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9  In reverse faults, the rock of the crust is pushed together.  The rock forming the hanging wall of a reverse fault slides up and over the footwall.  Part of the Rock Mountains were produced due to reverse faults.

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11  In places where plates move past each other, shearing create strike-slip faults.  In a strike-slip fault, the rocks on either side of the fault slip past each other sideways.  A strike-slip fault between plate boundaries is called a transform fault.

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13  Over millions of years, the forces of plate movement can change a flat plain into landforms such as anticlines and synclines, folded mountains, fault-block mountains, and plateaus.

14  Anticline is a fold that bends upward into an arch.  Syncline is a fold that bends downward to form a valley.  This is produced when two plates have compression (come together).

15  When 2 normal faults cut through a block of rock, a fault-block mountain is formed.  As the two faults are pulled apart, land is left in the middle. The hanging wall of each fault goes down and the block in between move up, creating a mountain.

16  Plateaus are large areas of flat land that elevated high above sea level.  Some plateaus form when forces in Earth’s crust push up a large, flat block of rock.  Plateaus consist of many flat layers that are wide.


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