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The foot is broken down into three major regions: -Forefoot: 5 Metatarsals, 14 Phalanges, 2 sesamoids -Mid-foot: Navicular, Cuboid, Cuneiforms -Hind-foot:

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Presentation on theme: "The foot is broken down into three major regions: -Forefoot: 5 Metatarsals, 14 Phalanges, 2 sesamoids -Mid-foot: Navicular, Cuboid, Cuneiforms -Hind-foot:"— Presentation transcript:

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2 The foot is broken down into three major regions: -Forefoot: 5 Metatarsals, 14 Phalanges, 2 sesamoids -Mid-foot: Navicular, Cuboid, Cuneiforms -Hind-foot: Talus and Calcaneus -Talocrual Joint (Ankle Joint): Tibia, Fibula, Talus

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11 Forefoot (5 Metatarsals, 14 Phalanges, 2 sesamoids) Metatarsophalengeal Joints: The articulation of the metatarsals and phalanges MTP, PIP, DIP Intermetatarsal Joints: The articulation of the metatarsals. Tarsometatarsal Joints: The articulation of the Tarsals and Metatarsals.

12 The Mid-Foot (Navicular, Cuboid, 3 cuneiforms) Calcaneocuboid joint Talocalcaneonavicular joint Cuneonavicular Cuboideonavicular Cuneocuboid Intercuneiform

13 The Hind-Foot (The Talus and Calcaneus) Talocrual Joint (Ankle Joint): The articulation between the talus, tibia, and lateral malleolus (distal end of the fibula)

14 Lateral Ankle 1. Anterior inferior Tibiofibular ligament: 2. Posterior Tibiofibular ligament 3. Posterior Talofibular ligament 4. Calcaneofibular ligament 5. Lateral talocalcaneal ligament 6. Anterior talofibular ligament

15 Medial Ankle 1.Posterior talocalcaneal ligament 2.Plantar calcaneonavicular ligament 3.Deltoid Ligament: 1.Posterior tibiofibular ligament 2.Tibiocalcaneal ligament 3.Anterior tibiotalar ligament 4.Tibionavicular ligament

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17 plantar fascia -the thick connective tissue which supports the arch of the foot. It runs from the tuberosity of the calcaneus forward to the heads of the metatarsal bones.

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19 Sheaths of Fascia divide the lower leg into four compartments: Anterior Lateral Deep Posterior Superficial Posterior

20 Anterior Compartment: Tibialis Anterior Extensor Digitorum Longus Extensor Hallucis Longus Peroneus Tertius

21 Lateral Compartment: Peroneus Longus Peroneus Brevis

22 Deep Posterior: Tibialis Posterior Flexor Digitorum Longus Flexor Hallucis Longus

23 Superficial Posterior: Gastrocnemius Soleus Plantaris

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30  Hallux Rigidus  Hallux Valgus  Claw, hammer, and mallet toe  Turf toe  Jones Fracture  Plantar Fasciitis  Heel Spurs  Lateral Ankle Sprain  Eversion Ankle Sprain  Calcaneal bursitis  Achilles Tendonitis  Achilles Tendon Rupture

31 Bunions-Hallux Valgus -Condition that is characterized by deviation of the great toe towards the lesser toes. -This results in the development of a bony prominence on the inner aspect of the foot at the base of the great toe.

32 Bunions Hallux Rigidus -Due to arthritic degeneration of the 1 st MTP Joint which may be very painful, but generally shows little deformity. -Usually a bony prominence but more on top of the big toe joint develops. -Limited range of mobility that occurs due to the arthritis

33 Claw Toe -Contracted at the middle and end joints in the toe -Can lead to severe pressure and pain -Ligaments and tendons that have tightened cause your toe's joints to curl downwards. -Claw toes can occur in any toe, except the big toe.

34 Hammer Toe -Deformity usually exists in one toe at the proximal inter phalangeal joint PIP -The base of the toe points upward and the end of the toe points down.

35 Mallet Toe -Deformity that occurs in the sagittal plane and affects only the distal phalanx. -Usually patients will see a callused area on the end of the toe and top of the last joint (DIP).

36 Turf Toe -Occurs after forceful extension of the Great Toe -Causing damage to the ligaments on the plantar surface of the foot.

37 Jones Fracture -Occur in the small area of the fifth metatarsal that receives less blood supply and more prone to difficulties in healing. -Jones fractures are caused by overuse, repetitive stress, or trauma. They are less common and more difficult to treat than avulsion fractures.

38 Plantar Fasciitis -Occurs when the long fibrous plantar fascia ligament along the bottom of the foot develops tears in the tissue resulting in pain and inflammation

39 Morton’s Neuroma -occur in response to irritation, pressure or injury to one of the nerves that lead to your toes. -The growth of thickened nerve tissue (neuroma) is part of your body's response to the irritation or injury.

40 Lateral Ankle Sprain (Inversion) -Most common type of ankle sprain -Occurs when the foot is forced to invert in which you roll over on the outside of your foot. -The Anterior Talofibular Ligament is most commonly involved ligaments in this type of sprain. -90% of ankle sprains are inversion injuries

41 Eversion Ankle Sprain -Significantly Less common - Occurs due to forceful eversion of the foot. Stretching deltoid ligament.

42 Calcaneal Bursitis -Inflammation of the calcaneal bursae -Most commonly caused by repetitive overuse and cumulative trauma, as seen in runners wearing tight-fitting shoes.

43 Achilles Tendonitis -Inflammation of the Achilles Tendon -Most commonly caused by repetitive overuse and cumulative trauma, as seen in runners wearing tight-fitting shoes.

44 Achilles Tendon Rupture -Rupture can occur while performing actions requiring explosive acceleration, such as pushing off or jumping.


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