7 Retinaculum Transverse Crural (Superior Extensor Retinaculum) Cruciate Crural (Inferior Extensor Retinaculum)Peroneal RetinaculumFlexor RetinaculumSuperior: Attaches posterior lateral malleolus to calcaneousInferior: Attaches lateral superior calcaneous to lateral inferior calcaneous“Y” shaped band that connects to the lateral calcaneous and medial malleolus and plantar aponeurosisAttaches lateral distal fibula and medial distal tibiaAttaches medial malleolus to medial tarsal bones
37 Hallux Valgus Hallux Varus Bunions are commonly hereditary but may also be caused or aggravated by shoe wear. The condition is far more common in women than in men and rarely occurs in individuals who do not wear shoes. Once a bunion is present the deformity of hallux valgus worsens slowly over time.Hallux Varus
41 Pronation and Supination Achilles TendonAnt. Line of GravityNavicular TuberosityArchWedgePronationSupination
42 Used to correct imbalances Heel WedgesUsed to correct imbalancesRule: The wedge is placed on the opposite side than the problemMedial WedgeHeel Valgus (Pronated foot)Genu ValgumExternal Tibial TorsionExternal Hip RotationLateral WedgeHeel Varus (Supinated foot)Genu VarumInternal Tibial TorsionInternal Hip Rotation
43 Click Picture for photographs Walking Gait PatternStance PhaseHeel-StrikeFoot in supinationLeg in external rotationMidstance (immediately foot pronates and leg internally rotates)Loading ResponseMidstanceTerminal StanceToe-Off (Immediately prior to and during toe-off)Foot returns to supinationLeg returns to external rotationSwing Phase (When the foot leaves the ground & the leg moves forward)Initial SwingMidswingTerminal SwingClick picture for animationClick picture for animationClick Picture for photographs
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