Presentation on theme: "ANATOMY FOOT AND ANKLE. RESOURCES: Getbodysmart.com"— Presentation transcript:
ANATOMY FOOT AND ANKLE
BONES The foot is made up of 26 bones The lower leg is comprised of 2 bones Forming the foot and ankle mortise of 28 bones
BONES OF THE FOOT
MUSCLES There are 19 muscles and tendons (tendon attaches muscle to bone) muscles acting on the foot can be classified into extrinsic muscles, those originating on the anterior or posterior aspect of the lower leg, and intrinsic muscles, originating on the dorsal (top) or plantar (base) aspects of the foot.
ANTERIOR COMPARTMENT MuscleOriginInsertionAction tibialis anterior shaft of tibia and interosseous membrane medial cuneiform & base of first metatarsal extends the foot; inverts foot; supports medial longitudinal arch extensor digitorum shaft of fibula and interosseous membrane extensor expansion of lateral four toes extends toes; dorsiflexes (extends) foot extensor hallucis longus shaft of fibula & interosseous membrane base of distal phalanx of big toe extends big toe; dorsiflexes (extends) foot; inverts foot at subtalar and transverse tarsal joints
LATERAL COMPARTMENT peroneus longus shaft of fibula base of 1st MT & medial cuneiform plantar flexes foot; everts foot at subtalar & transverse tarsal joints; supports lateral longitudinal and transverse arches of foot peroneus brevis shaft of fibula base of 5th metatarsal bone plantar flexes foot; everts foot at subtalar & transverse tarsal joints; supports lateral longitudinal arch
POSTERIOR COMPARTMENT gastrocnemius medial and lateral condyles of femur by way of Achilles tendon to calcaneum plantar flexes foot; flexes leg plantaris lateral supracondylar ridge of femur calcaneumplantar flexes foot; flexes leg soleus shafts of tibia and fibula by way of achilles tendon into calcaneum with gastrocnemius & plantaris is powerful plantar flexor of foot; provides main propulsive force in walking & running popliteus lateral condyle of femur shaft of tibia flexes leg; unlocks full extension of knee by laterally rotating femur on tibia flexor digitorum longus shaft of tibia distal phalanges of lateral four toes flexes distal phalanges of lateral four toes; plantar flexes foot; supports medial and lateral longitudinal arches of foot flexor hallucis longus shaft of fibula base of distal phalanx of big toe flexes distal phalanx of big toe; plantar flexes foot; supports medial longitudinal arch
DORSUM OF FOOT extensor digitorum brevis calcaneum by four tendons into the proximal phalanx of big toe and long extensor tendons to 2nd, 3rd and 4th toes extends toes
1 ST LAYER OF SOLE abductor hallucis medial tubercle of calcaneum; flexor retinaculum medial side, base of proximal phalanx of big toe flexes, abducts big toe; supports medial arch flexor digitorum brevis medial tubercle of calcaneum middle phalanx of four lateral toes flexes lateral four toes; supports medial & lateral longitudinal arches abductor digiti minimi medial & lateral tubercles of calcaneum lateral side base of proximal phalanx 5th toe flexes, abducts 5th toe; supports lateral longitudinal arch
MUSCLES OF LOWER LEG
MUSCLES OF FOOT
LIGAMENTS The lateral and medial ligaments of the ankle support and strengthen the joint. The deltoid ligament is stronger than the lateral ligaments. The strength of the deltoid prevents most eversions.
PRIMARY Primary ligaments of ankle include: medial Deltoid ligament - This strong ligament attaches to the medial malleolus. It has four parts named for the bones that they attach to: the tibionavicular, the tibiocalcaneal, the anterior tibiotalar, and the posterior tibiotalar Calcaneonavicular ligament (Spring Ligament) lateral Syndesmosis (includes AITFL, PITFL, TTFL, IOL, ITL) Anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) Posterior talofibular ligament (PTFL) Calcaneal fibular ligament (CFL) Lateral talocalcaneal ligament (LTCL)
If you’ve ever sprained an ankle, you injured one or more of the ligaments that hold the joint together. The lateral ligaments are damaged more often than the stronger medial ligament.
SIMPLIFIED VIEW (LATERAL)
ARCHES OF THE FOOT
Medial arch is higher than the lateral longitudinal arch. It is made up by the calcaneus, the talus, the navicular, the three cuneiforms, and the first, second, and third metatarsals The lateral arch is composed of the calcaneus, the cuboid, and the fourth and fifth metatarsals
ON A PERSON
PROBLEM WITH ARCHES
PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER
IN CLASS.. Begin Body Diagram… Draw foot bones Draw lateral and medial ligaments