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Anatomy and Physiology, Seventh Edition

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1 Anatomy and Physiology, Seventh Edition
Rod R. Seeley Idaho State University Trent D. Stephens Idaho State University Philip Tate Phoenix College Chapter 10 Lecture Outline* *See PowerPoint Image Slides for all figures and tables pre-inserted into PowerPoint without notes. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

2 Muscular System Gross Anatomy
Chapter 10 Muscular System Gross Anatomy

3 General Principles Tendons: attach muscles to bones Muscle terminology
Aponeurosis: a very broad tendon Muscle terminology Origin or head: muscle end attached to more stationary of two bones Insertion: muscle end attached to bone with greatest movement Belly: largest portion of the muscle between origin and insertion Agonist: muscle that, when it contracts, causes an action Antagonist: a muscle working in opposition to agonist Example: the biceps brachii can be used to lift weights and is the agonist, but when you move a bowling ball back to prepare to bowl, the biceps is the antagonist Synergists: muscles that work together to cause a movement Prime mover: plays major role in accomplishing movement Fixators: stabilize joint/s crossed by the prime mover; prevent movement of the origin of the prime mover.

4 Muscle attachment

5 Muscle Types

6 Examples of Muscle Shapes

7 Nomenclature Muscles are named according to:
Location: pectoralis gluteus, brachial Size: maximus, minimus, longus, brevis Shape: deltoid, quadratus, teres Orientation: rectus Origin and insertion: sternocleidomastoid, brachioradialis Number of heads: biceps, triceps Function: abductor, adductor, masseter

8 Muscle Movements Muscles and their tendons and bones act together as lever systems to move either parts of the body or the whole body. Muscle contractions are a pull or force by relative positions of Lever: rigid shaft or bone Fulcrum: pivot point or joint Weight or resistance (force of gravity either in the form of the weight of the body parts or the weight of an object being lifted, pulled, or pushed)

9 Classes of Levers Class I Class II Class III
Fulcrum between force and weight Seesaw Head movement at the atlantooccipital joint Class II Weight is between fulcrum and pull Wheelbarrow Standing on toes; metatarsophalangeal joint Class III Pull located between fulcrum and weight Person using a shovel Most common: biceps brachii with elbow as fulcrum Classes of Levers

10 Muscle Anatomy: Anterior View

11 Muscle Anatomy: Posterior View

12 Head and Neck Muscles Flexion: muscles deep within the neck along the anterior margins of the vertebral bodies Extension: posterior neck muscles attached to occipital bone Rotation and abduction: lateral and posterior groups Examples: sternocleidomastoid, trapezius, splenius muscles

13 Posterior Deep Neck Muscles

14 Muscles of Facial Expression
Cutaneous; origin and insertion in the superficial fascia. Confined primarily to head and neck. Move the skin; some act as sphincters. Examples: orbicularis oris, orbicularis oculi, platysma.

15 Muscles of Mastication and Hyoid
Mastication: chewing. Involves elevation/depression of the mandible and excursion to grind the teeth together Act with the muscles of hyoid in movement of the mandible Muscles of the cheek and tongue aid mastication by pushing the food under the teeth Examples: masseter, temporalis, pterygoids, digastrics

16 Muscles of the Hyoid

17 Tongue Movements Important in speech: changes shape Swallowing
Moves food around in mouth Holds food in place during grinding Pushes food up to palate and back toward pharynx Intrinsic: entirely within the tongue and allow change in shape Extrinsic: insert in tongue and allow change in shape and movement

18 Swallowing and the Larynx
Hyoid muscles: infra- and suprahyoid groups Suprahyoid muscles fix the hyoid, then thyrohyoid can elevate larynx When infrahyoid group fixes hyoid, suprahyoid muscles can help depress the mandible Swallowing: Elevation of pharynx and larynx Constriction of the pharynx from superior to inferior Salpingopharyngeus opens auditory tubes to equalize pressure between middle ear and atmosphere

19 Muscles of Larynx

20 Extrinsic Muscles of the Eye
Rectus muscles: insert on sclera anterior to center of sphere. Move eyeball and thus pupil laterally, superiorly, inferiorly, and medially Oblique muscles: insert onto the posterolateral margin of the eyeball and both laterally deviate the eyeball. The superior oblique passes through a pulley-like trochlea

21 Muscles that Move the Vertebral Column
Muscles that extend, laterally flex, and rotate the vertebral column. Used to produce erect posture Divided into deep and superficial groups Deep group: from vertebra to vertebra Superficial group extend from vertebrae to ribs

22 Deep Muscles of the Vertebrae

23 Thoracic Muscles Involved in breathing
Four groups associated with rib cage Scalenes: elevate first two ribs during inspiration External intercostals: elevate the ribs Internal intercostals: depress ribs during expiration Transversus thoracis: depresses ribs during expiration Diaphragm: major movement of inspiration. Flattens during contraction and increases the volume of the thoracic cavity

24 Abdominal Wall Flex and rotate vertebral column, decrease volume of abdominal and thoracic cavities Aid in forced expiration, vomiting, defecation, urination, childbirth Crossing pattern of muscles adds strength to abdominal wall to support organs

25 Abdominal Wall Rectus Abdominis
Linea alba in center Covered by rectus sheath Tendinous intersections divided muscle into sections Flexes vertebral column External abdominal oblique: flexes and rotates abdomen Internal abdominal oblique: flexes and rotates abdomen Transversus abdominis: compresses abdominal wall

26 Muscles of Pelvic Floor and Perineum
Pelvic diaphragm: Funnel-shaped, supports the pelvic viscera. Pierced by anal canal, urethra and (vagina). Perineum: diamond-shaped area inferior to pelvic diaphragm. Anterior half of diamond is urogenital triangle; posterior half is anal triangle

27 Scapular Movements Muscles that attach the upper limb to the body and move or stabilize the scapula and clavicle. Originate on the axial skeleton. Trapezius, levator scapulae, rhomboideus, serratus anterior, pectoralis minor

28 Arm Movements Muscles that attach arm to thorax: pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi Deltoid and pectoralis major both act as flexors and extensors of the shoulder Deltoid abducts and medially and laterally rotates arm

29 Rotator Cuff Primary muscles holding humerus in the glenoid cavity
Form a cuff or cap over the proximal humerus Involved in flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, rotation and circumduction Infraspinatus, subscapularis, supraspinatus, teres minor

30 Forearm Movement Movements at the elbow
Extension: triceps brachii and anconeus Flexion: biceps brachii, brachioradialis, and brachialis Supination and pronation: Supination: supinator and biceps brachii Pronation: pronator quadratus and pronator teres

31 Wrist, Hand, and Finger Movements
Muscles on anterior surface of forearm: flexion as well as abduction and adduction of the wrist. Muscles on posterior surface of forearm: extension and abduction. Retinacula- bands of deep fascia which hold tendons of muscles of forearm, blood vessels, and nerves close to wrist. Flexor retinaculum (transverse carpal ligament): on the flexor surface Extensor retinaculum (dorsal carpal ligament): on the extensor surface Wrist, Hand, and Finger Movements

32 Intrinsic Muscles of the Hand
Originate and insert in hand.

33 Thigh Movement Originate on coxa; insert onto femur
Anterior, posterolateral, deep Anterior: flex hip. Iliacus and psoas major often referred to as iliopsoas since they share a tendon of insertion Posterolateral: gluteals and tensor fasciae latae Extension of thigh Deep: thigh rotators

34 Leg Movements Quadriceps femoris: anterior surface of thigh
Extension of the leg at the knee. Rectus femoris also flexes the hip. Insert by common tendon (patellar tendon) on and around the patella Patellar tendon extends from patella to tibial tuberosity Sartorius: flexes hip and knee, laterally rotates thigh Medial thigh muscles: adduction Posterior thigh muscles: hamstrings. Flexion and rotation of the knee

35 Muscles that Move the Leg

36 Ankle, Foot, and Toe Movements
Extrinsic foot muscles Three leg compartments Anterior compartment: extensors involved in dorsiflexion and eversion/inversion of foot; extension of toes. Dorsiflex foot, extend toes. Lateral compartment: plantar flexion and eversion. Posterior compartment- Superficial muscles (plantar flexion) have common tendon of insertion called the calcaneal (Achilles) tendon. Gastrocnemius, plantaris Deep muscles: plantar flex and invert foot Ankle, Foot, and Toe Movements

37 Extrinsic Muscles of the Foot

38 Extrinsic Muscles of the Foot

39 Intrinsic Muscles of the Foot
Analogous to intrinsics of hand, but serve in support and locomotion Flexion, extension, abduction and adduction of toes Deep fascia forms plantar aponeurosis.

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