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10-1 Anatomy and Physiology, Seventh Edition Rod R. Seeley Idaho State University Trent D. Stephens Idaho State University Philip Tate Phoenix College.

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Presentation on theme: "10-1 Anatomy and Physiology, Seventh Edition Rod R. Seeley Idaho State University Trent D. Stephens Idaho State University Philip Tate Phoenix College."— Presentation transcript:

1 10-1 Anatomy and Physiology, Seventh Edition Rod R. Seeley Idaho State University Trent D. Stephens Idaho State University Philip Tate Phoenix College Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. *See PowerPoint Image Slides for all figures and tables pre-inserted into PowerPoint without notes. Chapter 10 Lecture Outline *

2 10-2 Muscular System Gross Anatomy Chapter 10

3 10-3 General Principles Tendons: attach muscles to bones –Aponeurosis: a very broad tendon Muscle terminology –Origin or head: muscle end attached to more stationary of two bones –Insertion: muscle end attached to bone with greatest movement –Belly: largest portion of the muscle between origin and insertion –Agonist: muscle that, when it contracts, causes an action –Antagonist: a muscle working in opposition to agonist Example: the biceps brachii can be used to lift weights and is the agonist, but when you move a bowling ball back to prepare to bowl, the biceps is the antagonist –Synergists: muscles that work together to cause a movement Prime mover: plays major role in accomplishing movement Fixators: stabilize joint/s crossed by the prime mover; prevent movement of the origin of the prime mover.

4 10-4 Muscle attachment

5 10-5 Muscle Types

6 10-6 Examples of Muscle Shapes

7 10-7 Nomenclature Muscles are named according to: –Location: pectoralis gluteus, brachial –Size: maximus, minimus, longus, brevis –Shape: deltoid, quadratus, teres –Orientation: rectus –Origin and insertion: sternocleidomastoid, brachioradialis –Number of heads: biceps, triceps –Function: abductor, adductor, masseter

8 10-8 Muscle Movements Muscles and their tendons and bones act together as lever systems to move either parts of the body or the whole body. Muscle contractions are a pull or force by relative positions of –Lever: rigid shaft or bone –Fulcrum: pivot point or joint –Weight or resistance (force of gravity either in the form of the weight of the body parts or the weight of an object being lifted, pulled, or pushed)

9 10-9 Classes of Levers Class I –Fulcrum between force and weight –Seesaw –Head movement at the atlantooccipital joint Class II –Weight is between fulcrum and pull –Wheelbarrow –Standing on toes; metatarsophalangeal joint Class III –Pull located between fulcrum and weight –Person using a shovel –Most common: biceps brachii with elbow as fulcrum

10 10-10 Muscle Anatomy: Anterior View

11 10-11 Muscle Anatomy: Posterior View

12 10-12 Head and Neck Muscles Flexion: muscles deep within the neck along the anterior margins of the vertebral bodies Extension: posterior neck muscles attached to occipital bone Rotation and abduction: lateral and posterior groups Examples: sternocleidomastoid, trapezius, splenius muscles

13 10-13 Posterior Deep Neck Muscles

14 10-14 Muscles of Facial Expression Cutaneous; origin and insertion in the superficial fascia. Confined primarily to head and neck. Move the skin; some act as sphincters. Examples: orbicularis oris, orbicularis oculi, platysma.

15 10-15 Muscles of Mastication and Hyoid Mastication: chewing. Involves elevation/depression of the mandible and excursion to grind the teeth together Act with the muscles of hyoid in movement of the mandible Muscles of the cheek and tongue aid mastication by pushing the food under the teeth Examples: masseter, temporalis, pterygoids, digastrics

16 10-16 Muscles of the Hyoid

17 10-17 Tongue Movements Important in speech: changes shape Swallowing –Moves food around in mouth –Holds food in place during grinding –Pushes food up to palate and back toward pharynx Intrinsic: entirely within the tongue and allow change in shape Extrinsic: insert in tongue and allow change in shape and movement

18 10-18 Swallowing and the Larynx Hyoid muscles: infra- and suprahyoid groups –Suprahyoid muscles fix the hyoid, then thyrohyoid can elevate larynx –When infrahyoid group fixes hyoid, suprahyoid muscles can help depress the mandible Swallowing: Elevation of pharynx and larynx Constriction of the pharynx from superior to inferior Salpingopharyngeus opens auditory tubes to equalize pressure between middle ear and atmosphere

19 10-19 Muscles of Larynx

20 10-20 Extrinsic Muscles of the Eye Rectus muscles: insert on sclera anterior to center of sphere. Move eyeball and thus pupil laterally, superiorly, inferiorly, and medially Oblique muscles: insert onto the posterolateral margin of the eyeball and both laterally deviate the eyeball. The superior oblique passes through a pulley-like trochlea

21 10-21 Muscles that Move the Vertebral Column Muscles that extend, laterally flex, and rotate the vertebral column. Used to produce erect posture Divided into deep and superficial groups –Deep group: from vertebra to vertebra –Superficial group extend from vertebrae to ribs

22 10-22 Deep Muscles of the Vertebrae

23 10-23 Thoracic Muscles Involved in breathing Four groups associated with rib cage –Scalenes: elevate first two ribs during inspiration –External intercostals: elevate the ribs –Internal intercostals: depress ribs during expiration –Transversus thoracis: depresses ribs during expiration –Diaphragm: major movement of inspiration. Flattens during contraction and increases the volume of the thoracic cavity

24 10-24 Abdominal Wall Flex and rotate vertebral column, decrease volume of abdominal and thoracic cavities Aid in forced expiration, vomiting, defecation, urination, childbirth Crossing pattern of muscles adds strength to abdominal wall to support organs

25 10-25 Abdominal Wall Rectus Abdominis –Linea alba in center –Covered by rectus sheath –Tendinous intersections divided muscle into sections –Flexes vertebral column External abdominal oblique: flexes and rotates abdomen Internal abdominal oblique: flexes and rotates abdomen Transversus abdominis: compresses abdominal wall

26 10-26 Muscles of Pelvic Floor and Perineum Pelvic diaphragm: Funnel-shaped, supports the pelvic viscera. Pierced by anal canal, urethra and (vagina). Perineum: diamond- shaped area inferior to pelvic diaphragm. Anterior half of diamond is urogenital triangle; posterior half is anal triangle

27 10-27 Scapular Movements Muscles that attach the upper limb to the body and move or stabilize the scapula and clavicle. Originate on the axial skeleton. Trapezius, levator scapulae, rhomboideus, serratus anterior, pectoralis minor

28 10-28 Arm Movements Muscles that attach arm to thorax: pectoralis major, latissimus dorsi Deltoid and pectoralis major both act as flexors and extensors of the shoulder Deltoid abducts and medially and laterally rotates arm

29 10-29 Rotator Cuff Primary muscles holding humerus in the glenoid cavity Form a cuff or cap over the proximal humerus Involved in flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, rotation and circumduction Infraspinatus, subscapularis, supraspinatus, teres minor

30 10-30 Forearm Movement Movements at the elbow Extension: triceps brachii and anconeus Flexion: biceps brachii, brachioradialis, and brachialis Supination and pronation: –Supination: supinator and biceps brachii –Pronation: pronator quadratus and pronator teres

31 10-31 Wrist, Hand, and Finger Movements Muscles on anterior surface of forearm: flexion as well as abduction and adduction of the wrist. Muscles on posterior surface of forearm: extension and abduction. Retinacula- bands of deep fascia which hold tendons of muscles of forearm, blood vessels, and nerves close to wrist. –Flexor retinaculum (transverse carpal ligament): on the flexor surface –Extensor retinaculum (dorsal carpal ligament): on the extensor surface

32 10-32 Intrinsic Muscles of the Hand Originate and insert in hand.

33 10-33 Thigh Movement Originate on coxa; insert onto femur Anterior, posterolateral, deep –Anterior: flex hip. Iliacus and psoas major often referred to as iliopsoas since they share a tendon of insertion –Posterolateral: gluteals and tensor fasciae latae Extension of thigh –Deep: thigh rotators

34 10-34 Leg Movements Quadriceps femoris: anterior surface of thigh –Extension of the leg at the knee. –Rectus femoris also flexes the hip. –Insert by common tendon (patellar tendon) on and around the patella –Patellar tendon extends from patella to tibial tuberosity Sartorius: flexes hip and knee, laterally rotates thigh Medial thigh muscles: adduction Posterior thigh muscles: hamstrings. Flexion and rotation of the knee

35 10-35 Muscles that Move the Leg

36 10-36 Ankle, Foot, and Toe Movements Extrinsic foot muscles Three leg compartments –Anterior compartment: extensors involved in dorsiflexion and eversion/inversion of foot; extension of toes. Dorsiflex foot, extend toes. –Lateral compartment: plantar flexion and eversion. –Posterior compartment- Superficial muscles (plantar flexion) have common tendon of insertion called the calcaneal (Achilles) tendon. Gastrocnemius, plantaris Deep muscles: plantar flex and invert foot

37 10-37 Extrinsic Muscles of the Foot

38 10-38 Extrinsic Muscles of the Foot

39 10-39 Intrinsic Muscles of the Foot Analogous to intrinsics of hand, but serve in support and locomotion Flexion, extension, abduction and adduction of toes Deep fascia forms plantar aponeurosis.

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