Presentation on theme: "Warm Up: How were Arab Muslims able to conquer and rule such a large empire with a relatively small population?"— Presentation transcript:
Warm Up: How were Arab Muslims able to conquer and rule such a large empire with a relatively small population?
III. Islamic Civilization A.Law and Dogma 1.Shari’a The law of Islam provides the foundation for Islamic Civilization Based on: The sunna, or tradition of the Prophet Based on the hadith, the words and deeds of Muhammad
III. Islamic Civilization B. Converts and Cities 1.Conversion To convert to Islam, a person must state, in the presence of a Muslim: “there is not God but God, and Muhammad is the Messenger of God” Many converts initially could not speak Arabic, read the Quran
III. Islamic Civilization 2.Urbanization Converts often faced discrimination in their home communities Migrated to Arab governing centers Capital cities and military settlements Muslim cities grew rapidly Non-Muslim cities stagnated or shrank
III. Islamic Civilization 3. Islamic Architecture It is in Architecture that the greatest cultural blending can be seen Already existing buildings were modified by Islamic Ideals Islamic Features: – Multi-lobed interwoven arches – Domes – Minarets – Large courtyards
Multi-lobed interwoven arches
Dome of the Rock Located in Jerusalem Rock in the center is believed to be the spot from where Muhammad ascended (rose) up to Heaven
Minarets Towers built from where Muslims are called to prayer 5 times a day
III. Islamic Civilization 4. Mosaics Artwork created using tiny pieces of colored glass tiles Muslims use mosaics to create geometric decorations on Mosques
III. Islamic Civilization 5. Arabic Alphabet Arabic was first used to translate the context of the Quran (The Holy Book of Islam) Written from Right to Left Made up of 28 letters
III. Islamic Civilization 6. Calligraphy Art of beautiful handwriting In Islam, showing living things in art was not allowed So artists turned to calligraphy to express themselves.
Islamic Art Project
Warm Up: What was the purpose of mosaics and calligraphy in Islamic art and architecture?
III. Islamic Civilization 7. Universities Muhammad strongly believed in the power of learning – This led to support of places of learning by Muslim Leaders Qualified physicians = treat the sick Mathematicians and Astronomers = Calculated times for prayer
III. Islamic Civilization 8. Science and Technology Muslim science exceeded that of European counterparts Built on Hellenistic traditions and observations
III. Islamic Civilization 9. Medical The Comprehensive Book – An encyclopedia of medicine using knowledge from Greek, Syrian, Arabic and Indian sources of knowledge
III. Islamic Civilization 10. Math Arabic Numbers were adapted from India – Included the number ZERO Led to study of optics which helped develop lenses for telescopes and microscopes
III. Islamic Civilization 11. Astronomy Determined the Milky Way lies far beyond earth’s atmosphere Explained why the sun and moon appear larger on horizon than overhead
III. Islamic Civilization C.Islam, Women, and Slaves 1.Women Muslim women were veiled and secluded as they had been previously in the Byzantine and the Sasanid Empires. Women could be influential in the family, but only slave women could have a public role or appear in public before men.
III. Islamic Civilization 2.Women and Law Muslim women did have rights under Islamic law. These rights included the right to own property and to retain it in marriage, the right to divorce, to remarry, to testify in court, and to go on pilgrimage.
III. Islamic Civilization 4.Slavery Muslims were not permitted to enslave their fellow Muslims, Jews, Christians, or Zoroastrians -except when taken as prisoners of war. Muslims could and did hold non-Muslim slaves, but the status of slave was not hereditary.
III. Islamic Civilization D.The Recentering of Islam 1.Effects of Fragmentation The decline of the caliphate and factionalism within the ulama deprived Islam of a religious center. During the 12 th & 13 th centuries two new sources of religious authority developed: the madrasas (religious colleges) and the Sufi brotherhoods.
III. Islamic Civilization 2.Sufi Brotherhoods Mystic fraternities whose members sought union with God through rituals and training. The early Sufis were mystics who went into ecstasies and expressed their ideas in poetry; the Sufi brotherhoods developed into organizations of Muslim men. Sufi brotherhoods provided their members with spiritual guidance and rules for everyday life. The brotherhoods originated in the urban areas and then spread to the countryside.