Islam Spreads Caliph (successor) Four caliphs By 750, the Muslim empire stretched from the Atlantic Ocean to the Indus River http://mapsofwar.com/ind/history-of- religion.html http://mapsofwar.com/ind/history-of- religion.html http://mapsofwar.com/ind/history-of- religion.html http://mapsofwar.com/ind/imper ial-history.html http://mapsofwar.com/ind/imper ial-history.html http://mapsofwar.com/ind/imper ial-history.html
The Four Caliphs Abu Bakr (632-634) Umar (634-644) Uthman (644-656) Ali (656-661)
Muslim Empire Splits Umayyads succeed the fourth caliph (Ali) Sunni Shi’a Sufi
Umayyad (661-750) Land Conquests In Spain, the Umayyads held power over a society in which Islamic, Roman, German, and Jewish cultures combined to form a unique Iberian variant of Islamic civilization. Muslim Spain saw substantial urbanization; the introduction of citrus crops; a diverse, irrigated, agricultural sector; and a florescence of Muslim and Jewish intellectual activity.
Rise of Abbasid Caliphate Family of Abbas—an uncle of Muhammad—took over and established the Abbasid Caliphate Provided renewed religious leadership, which they combined with a style of rulership and royal ceremony derived from the Sasanids Literature and learning, including the translation of Greek texts and secular Arab poetry, thrived under the Abbasids Baghdad was a center of Abbasid culture; other areas shared in this culture to varying extents. The Abbasid period: high rate of non-Muslim subjects convert to Islam
Chapter 8 – BIG PICTURE! Islam emerged among the nomadic pastoralists and caravan traders of Arabian peninsula Muhammad (Arab trader from Mecca) experienced revelations that called people to submit to God’s will Muhammad fled to Median with followers– where umma was formed Succession troubles: Sunni and Shi’ite split –Caliph = office(s) or leader(s) of succession
Ch. 8– BIG PICTURE! (con’t) Early successor- Abu Bakr confirmed 5 Pillars Shari’a = foundation of Islamis civilization (derived from Quran) Women in general enjoyed relatively high status under Islamic law, though tended to live in seclusion Urbanization and religious conversion reinforced each other and prompted the expansion of agriculture, trade, science, technology