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The Muslim World 600-1250. Roots of Islam  Bedouins in Arabia  Sasanid Empire, 224-651 –Control –Zoroastrianism –Silk Road.

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Presentation on theme: "The Muslim World 600-1250. Roots of Islam  Bedouins in Arabia  Sasanid Empire, 224-651 –Control –Zoroastrianism –Silk Road."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Muslim World

2 Roots of Islam  Bedouins in Arabia  Sasanid Empire, –Control –Zoroastrianism –Silk Road

3

4 Arabian Peninsula before Muhammad  Settled people  Nomads rare, but important – caravan link

5 CROSSROADS OF TRADE

6 Muhammad  Born in 570  Caravan trader  In 610, revelations  Qur’an  Qur’an (contains actual revelations of Allah)

7 Beliefs of Islam  Five Pillars of Islam –Faith (Allah is supreme God) –Prayer –Zakat (offerings, charity) –Fasting –Hajj (pilgrimage)

8 Formation of the Umma Muhammad fleas from Mecca to Medina with followers and establishes a community of believers– “umma”

9

10 Spread of Islam under Muhammad

11 Islam Spreads  Caliph (successor)  Four caliphs  By 750, the Muslim empire stretched from the Atlantic Ocean to the Indus River  religion.html religion.html religion.html  ial-history.html ial-history.html ial-history.html

12 The Four Caliphs  Abu Bakr ( )  Umar ( )  Uthman ( )  Ali ( )

13 Copyright © McDougal Littell. All Rights Reserved. Muslim World, 1200

14 Muslim Empire Splits  Umayyads succeed the fourth caliph (Ali)  Sunni  Shi’a  Sufi

15 Umayyad ( ) Land Conquests In Spain, the Umayyads held power over a society in which Islamic, Roman, German, and Jewish cultures combined to form a unique Iberian variant of Islamic civilization. Muslim Spain saw substantial urbanization; the introduction of citrus crops; a diverse, irrigated, agricultural sector; and a florescence of Muslim and Jewish intellectual activity.

16 Downfall of the Umayyid

17 Abbasids Give it a Shot

18 Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All Rights Reserved. Rise and Fall of the Abbasid Caliphate

19 Rise of Abbasid Caliphate  Family of Abbas—an uncle of Muhammad—took over and established the Abbasid Caliphate  Provided renewed religious leadership, which they combined with a style of rulership and royal ceremony derived from the Sasanids  Literature and learning, including the translation of Greek texts and secular Arab poetry, thrived under the Abbasids  Baghdad was a center of Abbasid culture; other areas shared in this culture to varying extents.  The Abbasid period: high rate of non-Muslim subjects convert to Islam

20 Muslim Conquests

21 SHARIA

22 Women in the Islamic World Copyright © Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved. 1.Muslim women did have rights under Islamic law right to inherit and own property and to retain it in marriage right to divorce, to remarry to testify in court go on pilgrimage HOWEVER, 2. Women were veiled and secluded as they had been previously in the Byzantine and the Sasanid empires. Could be influential in the family, but only slave women could have a public role or appear in public before men.

23 Chapter 8 – BIG PICTURE!  Islam emerged among the nomadic pastoralists and caravan traders of Arabian peninsula  Muhammad (Arab trader from Mecca) experienced revelations that called people to submit to God’s will  Muhammad fled to Median with followers– where umma was formed  Succession troubles: Sunni and Shi’ite split –Caliph = office(s) or leader(s) of succession

24 Ch. 8– BIG PICTURE! (con’t)  Early successor- Abu Bakr confirmed 5 Pillars  Shari’a = foundation of Islamis civilization (derived from Quran)  Women in general enjoyed relatively high status under Islamic law, though tended to live in seclusion  Urbanization and religious conversion reinforced each other and prompted the expansion of agriculture, trade, science, technology


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