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Muslim Culture.

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Presentation on theme: "Muslim Culture."— Presentation transcript:

1 Muslim Culture

2 Four Social Classes Upper class – Muslim at birth
Second class – Islamic converts Third class – “protected people” Christians, Jews, and Zoroastrians Lowest class – slaves Many slaves were prisoners of war All slaves were non-Muslim Performed household work Fought in the military

3 Women Men and women equal as believers and in the eyes of God
Muslim women had more economic and property rights than European, Indian, and Chinese women in the time period Still expected to submit to men Had access to education Some women were poets and scholars

4 Responsibilities of Women
Vary depending on husband’s income Poor – women works in the fields Wealthier – women supervises the household and servants Raising the children Early days of Islam, women could participate in public life and gain an education Over time, Muslim women were forced to live increasingly isolated lives and be veiled in public

5 Hijab Head covering traditionally worn by Muslim women
Islamic dress code that prescribes modesty for both sexes and requires women to reveal only their face, hands and feet

6 Astronomy Interest developed from the need to fulfill 3 of the Five Pillars of Islam Fasting during Ramadan Hajj Prayer Studying the skies helped fix the location of cities so that worshippers could face Mecca when they prayed Extensive knowledge of the stars guided Muslim traders to the different trading cities

7 Astrolabe Has a plate which simulates the sky
Rotating sphere on top representing the movement of the earth in relation to the stars Allows for calculation of time, relative position, and religious events

8 House of Wisdom Both Umayyads and Abbasids encouraged scholars to collect and translate scientific and philosophical texts Caliph al-Ma’mun opens the House of Wisdom Consists of a library, academy, and translation center Scholars translate works from Greece, India, Persia, etc. into Arabic

9 Art Muslims believe that only Allah can create life, so images of living beings are discouraged Expressed themselves through decorative arts, such as woodwork, glass, ceramics, or textiles

10 Calligraphy Art of beautiful handwriting

11 Arabesque Complex, ornate design, which usually incorporates flowers, leaves, and geometric patterns

12 Great Mosque of Damascus
Built on the site of a Christian Church Huge dome and vaulted ceiling

13 Al-Razi Considered the greatest physician up until the 16th century
Wrote an encyclopedia called the Comprehensive Book Wrote the Treatise on Smallpox and Measles Patients would recover more quickly if they breathed in cleaner air

14 Al-Khwarizmi Scholars believed that math was the basis of all knowledge Wrote a textbook on “the art of bringing together unknowns to match a known quality” Calls this al-jabr Today this is algebra

15 Ibn al-Haytham Wrote Optics
Used in developing lenses for telescopes and microscopes

16 Philosophers Ibn Rushd – tries to blend Greek and Islamic philosophy
Argues that the goal of both is to find the truth Moses Ben Maimon – wrote The Guide for the Perplexed Blends philosophy, science, and religion

17 Literature Poems celebrating bravery, love, generosity, and hospitality Qur’an – basis for literature and poetry During the Abbasid caliphate, poetry was expanded to include themes of nature and the pleasures of life and love The Thousand and One Nights – collection of fairy tales and legends Linked to India and Persia Muslim Empire adds stories and arranges them

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