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 Upper class – Muslim at birth  Second class – Islamic converts  Third class – “protected people” ◦ Christians, Jews, and Zoroastrians  Lowest class.

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Presentation on theme: " Upper class – Muslim at birth  Second class – Islamic converts  Third class – “protected people” ◦ Christians, Jews, and Zoroastrians  Lowest class."— Presentation transcript:

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2  Upper class – Muslim at birth  Second class – Islamic converts  Third class – “protected people” ◦ Christians, Jews, and Zoroastrians  Lowest class – slaves ◦ Many slaves were prisoners of war ◦ All slaves were non-Muslim ◦ Performed household work ◦ Fought in the military

3  Men and women equal as believers and in the eyes of God  Muslim women had more economic and property rights than European, Indian, and Chinese women in the time period  Still expected to submit to men  Had access to education ◦ Some women were poets and scholars

4  Vary depending on husband’s income ◦ Poor – women works in the fields ◦ Wealthier – women supervises the household and servants  Raising the children  Early days of Islam, women could participate in public life and gain an education  Over time, Muslim women were forced to live increasingly isolated lives and be veiled in public

5  Head covering traditionally worn by Muslim women  Islamic dress code that prescribes modesty for both sexes and requires women to reveal only their face, hands and feet

6  Interest developed from the need to fulfill 3 of the Five Pillars of Islam ◦ Fasting during Ramadan ◦ Hajj ◦ Prayer  Studying the skies helped fix the location of cities so that worshippers could face Mecca when they prayed  Extensive knowledge of the stars guided Muslim traders to the different trading cities

7  Has a plate which simulates the sky  Rotating sphere on top representing the movement of the earth in relation to the stars  Allows for calculation of time, relative position, and religious events

8  Both Umayyads and Abbasids encouraged scholars to collect and translate scientific and philosophical texts  Caliph al-Ma’mun opens the House of Wisdom  Consists of a library, academy, and translation center  Scholars translate works from Greece, India, Persia, etc. into Arabic

9  Muslims believe that only Allah can create life, so images of living beings are discouraged  Expressed themselves through decorative arts, such as woodwork, glass, ceramics, or textiles

10 Art of beautiful handwriting Calligraphy

11 Complex, ornate design, which usually incorporates flowers, leaves, and geometric patterns Arabesque

12 Built on the site of a Christian Church Huge dome and vaulted ceiling Great Mosque of Damascus

13  Considered the greatest physician up until the 16 th century  Wrote an encyclopedia called the Comprehensive Book  Wrote the Treatise on Smallpox and Measles ◦ Patients would recover more quickly if they breathed in cleaner air

14  Scholars believed that math was the basis of all knowledge  Wrote a textbook on “the art of bringing together unknowns to match a known quality” ◦ Calls this al-jabr ◦ Today this is algebra

15  Wrote Optics ◦ Used in developing lenses for telescopes and microscopes

16  Ibn Rushd – tries to blend Greek and Islamic philosophy ◦ Argues that the goal of both is to find the truth  Moses Ben Maimon – wrote The Guide for the Perplexed ◦ Blends philosophy, science, and religion

17  Poems celebrating bravery, love, generosity, and hospitality  Qur’an – basis for literature and poetry  During the Abbasid caliphate, poetry was expanded to include themes of nature and the pleasures of life and love  The Thousand and One Nights – collection of fairy tales and legends ◦ Linked to India and Persia ◦ Muslim Empire adds stories and arranges them


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