Presentation on theme: "Chapter 6: Growth in a Crumbling Empire Spreading the Faith, Bringing Order to Chaos Text Pages 103-122."— Presentation transcript:
Chapter 6: Growth in a Crumbling Empire Spreading the Faith, Bringing Order to Chaos Text Pages 103-122
A Picture of Christian Life In Cp. 5 we saw: Monasticism Church scholarship Role of the papacy All flourish in spite of a failing empire in the West.
Life: 450-750 Termed the “Dark Ages” Fall of the Western Empire>476 AD Continuing barbarian raids Most of what is now Europe was divided into areas ruled by local kings…often at war with their neighbors.
4 Views into Christian life 1) God as Ruler Life was very difficult Inconsistent food supplies War, disease Short life span...45
4 views 2) The Mass and Sacraments> WEST >Worship especially Eucharistic worship was central to Christian life. The form of the Mass was standardized by the 500’s Said in Latin
4 views Worship in the East Highly decorated wall panels separated the altar from the congregation (pg 104) Liturgy of the Word in Front, Liturgy of the Eucharist behind Sense of mystery Greek, sometimes other languages could be used.
4 views 3) Veneration of Saints Increasingly important> martyrs Called upon in prayer and in liturgy Honored NOT worshiped A human connection Relics of saints become important People/localities had “favorite Saints”
4 views 4) The Clergy Qualifications for the priesthood become stricter/more standardized Minimum: not have done public penance ( why??) Have not served in the army since the time of their baptism ( why??) And not have paid for public pagan games and Not have been a pagan priest
4 views 4) The Clergy continued Nearly a century later the list of qualifications was expanded to specify that : No women No illiterate person No proven criminal No physically deformed
4 views 4) Continued >In these centuries the priest was often chosen by the town’s people or by the ruler in the local castle Enforcement of qualifications was often weak due to distance, slow communication Staying unmarried was encouraged but not required
Questions How was the Mass in the East different from the Mass in the West during the 6th century? What are some qualifications that began to emerge as required for the clergy? What qualifications would you make for today’s clergy?
The Political scene: West Invasion! Goths split West into 2 kingdoms>Franks in the North and Goths in the South Clovis king of the Franks converts> his soldiers and people do too. Rise of Christianity in West. Church stronger than state> Pope and church offer leadership, order, peacekeeping efforts.
The Political Scene: East Justinian rules both Church and State Persecutes Jews and other non-Christians Justinian Code Hagia Sophia Church State is stronger than Church Emperors = “super-bishop” role Emperors dominate Church affairs
Justinian Code Reform of Civil Law Written in pre-Christian times > did not reflect Christian values 7 yrs later Justinian Code, in Latin>basis for European law Fathers could no longer send children into slavery to pay his debts. Women could own property No easy divorce
After>>>>> After Justinian the emperors were weak New barbarian invasions began Like the West before it, the East begins to decline.
Questions How were the East and West different politically? How did Arianism affect Church developments in the East and West? How was Clovis’s conversion significant for Christianity? +‘s and-’s of Justinian’s reign
In two columns, one labeled “Dark Ages ” and the other labeled “Today ”, compare the beliefs people had about God in the Dark Ages with the beliefs many people you age have about God today? Discuss your opinion of the requirements for the priesthood of the fifth, sixth and seventh centuries. Be prepared to share your thoughts with the class. List a set of 6 requirements you would recommend for the priesthood today. Describe someone who you know who is tolerant of others even though the others disagree with him or her about important things. What do you think motivates this person to be tolerant ? Why would masses of people follow their king to baptism? How might this sort of baptism have affected the people’s religious beliefs and practices?
Benedict: A Balance of Work and Prayer Law student Sin and crime and confusion everywhere! Seeks God in the countryside Others gather around him Food, Shelter, Clothing ORA ET LABORA A balanced life between prayer and work.
Pope Gregory the I (The Great) Lived from 540-604 Rome is in shambles people were moving away> no food, no water In spite of being young Gregory was named prefect of Rome> Governor> Chief of police> Chief justice All this authority did not bring him happiness
Gregory When his father died: Resigned and began giving away his money. He turned the family mansion into a monastery and became a monk. He did not want to be abbot. The pope asked Gregory to go to Constantinople and tell the emperor of Rome’s needs.
Gregory Returns to Rome Tiber river floods Disease The pope dies and The people of Rome elect Gregory to be their Pope At age 50 Gregory becomes the Pope.
Gregory: An Able Leader As the bishop of Rome Gregory was responsible for the poor. There was no other welfare agency. Fed the poor, repaired buildings with profits from church owned farms.
Gregory: Church Educator Poorly educated clergy, often chosen by local rulers or the residents. Bishops to open schools for young men wanting to be priests. They in turn would open schools for children Church schools and monastery schools were the only sources of education at the time. 900 of Gregory’s letter still exist. Topics: Bible, liturgy, duties of pastors
Liturgical Music Keeping a written record of music for the liturgy. One of the ways we learn is by song. Words very important. If the melody changes, the words will change. This could open the door to singing what we do NOT believe…
Gregory: Diplomat Missionaries to the various barbarian tribes Alliances and convert rather than resist. This decision eventually led to the conversion of what is now Europe 40 monks sent to Britain> fearsome tales of barbarian atrocities.
Gregory: Diplomat When the monks reach Britain> peaceful greeting by the Anglo-Saxon king Ethelbert. Ethelbert so impressed with the life of the monks that he converts. Ethelbert did not force his people to convert. They came voluntarily into the church In 100 years all of Britain will be Christian
Gregory: Conclusion Far-reaching effects Solidified the church in a time of calamity Education Diplomacy Mission work Even feeding the poor and building churches and the walls of Rome. And yet humbly saw himself as “ Servant of the Servants of God”.
The Rise of Islam While Gregory was working in the West The followers of a prophet named Muhammad ( 570-632) were spreading their new religion. Followers= Muslims Religion = Islam Both terms refer to “submission to God”
Rise of Islam Central belief> there is one God, and Allah is his name Islamic scriptures> Koran> Qur’an Revealed to Muhammad by the angel Gabriel. Honor Allah by spreading the faith. Did NOT force conversions. But did collect taxes from infidels> those who refused to convert
Rise of Islam To avoid taxes many Christians in the East converted to Islam The sea belongs to the Muslims. Trade cut between East and West 700’s Spain comes under rule of the Moslems. Moors=Muslims who conquered Spain.
Rise of Islam Muslims begin to march towards Gaul ( France) Defeated in 732 by Charles Martel at the city of Tours, near Paris. “Martel” means “the hammer” His victories prevented Islam from spreading over Europe. Medicine, Math, Art, Architecture, even Greek Philosophy which had been learned by Muslim scholars.