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The philosophes of the Enlightenment PART I History 311.

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1 The philosophes of the Enlightenment PART I History 311

2 The Enlightenment In the eighteenth century, a daring and dramatically new intellectual and cultural movement arose in western Europe. Of its many characteristics — audacity, wit, an interest in the practical and the applied —none was more important than its critical, biting edge. This opinionated movement called for “enlightenment”— for new thinking about once unquestioned truths and eventually for new actions. Best characterized by the metaphor of light, the Enlightenment has retrained the name it acquired early in the eighteenth century. (Jacob, p. 1) In the eighteenth century, a daring and dramatically new intellectual and cultural movement arose in western Europe. Of its many characteristics — audacity, wit, an interest in the practical and the applied —none was more important than its critical, biting edge. This opinionated movement called for “enlightenment”— for new thinking about once unquestioned truths and eventually for new actions. Best characterized by the metaphor of light, the Enlightenment has retrained the name it acquired early in the eighteenth century. (Jacob, p. 1)

3 Enlightenment as Intellectual Movement Difficult to Date – 18 th Century – Primarily in France Difficult to Date – 18 th Century – Primarily in France Led by a diverse group of intellectuals commonly called the philosophes Led by a diverse group of intellectuals commonly called the philosophes Not so much a coherent philosophy, but an intellectual movement—the 18 th century version of the cultural wars Not so much a coherent philosophy, but an intellectual movement—the 18 th century version of the cultural wars Intellectual Roots of Liberalism—political, economic, and social liberalism Intellectual Roots of Liberalism—political, economic, and social liberalism

4 Defining Characteristics Reason vs Revelation Reason vs Revelation Secular Secular Deism Deism Empirical Empirical Toleration Toleration –Freedom of Speech –Freedom of Press –Religious Freedom Anti-clerical and anti-authoritarian Anti-clerical and anti-authoritarian Emphasis upon Education Emphasis upon Education Equality before the Law Equality before the Law Cultural Relativism Cultural Relativism Theory of Progress Theory of Progress

5 Sir Isaac Newton, 1642-1727 Principia, 1687 Newtonian Worldview One universal, mathematical law explains all motion in universe World of nature open to human investigation and knowledge Mechanical view of nature Orderly, regulated, uniform Machine operates by natural laws Natural Laws can be Known by Man

6 John Locke 1632-1704 Essay Concerning Human Understanding, 1690 Denies Innate Ideas Tabula rasa Sensation Reflection Lockean Epistemology Does for Human Mind What Newton Does for Universe

7 John Locke 1632-1704 A Letter Concerning Toleration, 1689,1690,1692 Laissez-faire liberalism in religion and politics Limitations of the human mind Political Dualism Civil & Ecclesiastical Realms

8 Forming Political Society: The Social Contract What is gained: “Established, settled, known law” “a known and indifferent judge” Power to enforce the law What is given up: Individual right to determine and punish violators of the law

9 Conclusions Locke gives theoretical basis for modern political liberalism: Locke gives theoretical basis for modern political liberalism: –Political authority resides in the individual –Establishes the right to revolution Locke gives theoretical basis for modern economic liberalism Locke gives theoretical basis for modern economic liberalism –Property rights reside in the individual –The use of money justifies economic inequality Locke’s influence in America and the modern world--incalculable Locke’s influence in America and the modern world--incalculable

10 The Crisis of the European Mind and the Debate Over Religious Toleration

11 Blaise Pascal,1623-1662 Child Prodigy and Mathematical Genius Work on Conic Sections & Probability Theory Scientific Work on Barometer 1654 Mystical Experience &Provincial Letters & Pensées “The heart has its reasons of which reason knows nothing.”

12 Pierre Bayle, 1647-1706 Huguenot Refugee in Rotterdam Huguenot Refugee in Rotterdam Skeptic and Advocate for Toleration Skeptic and Advocate for Toleration Nouvelles de la République des Lettres Nouvelles de la République des Lettres Historical and Critical Dictionary, 1697 Historical and Critical Dictionary, 1697

13 The philosophes of the Enlightenment PART II History 311

14 Richard Simon, 1638-1712 Catholic Priest taught by the Fathers of the Oratory Catholic Priest taught by the Fathers of the Oratory Critical History of the Old Testament Critical History of the Old Testament Latter Volumes on the New Testament Latter Volumes on the New Testament Significance of Biblical Criticism Significance of Biblical Criticism

15 Baron de Montesquieu 1689-1755 Persian Letters, 1721 Spirit of the Laws, 1748 Cultural Relativism Making a “science of society” Doing for Human Institutions What Newton Did for Physical Universe

16 Baron de Montesquieu 1689-1755 Spirit of the Laws, 1748 Method—Seeks operative laws Nature and Principle (or Spirit) Three Kinds of Government Republican (Virtue) Monarchy (Honor) Despotism (Fear) Checks and Balances Legislative Executive Judicial Control of Military

17 Denis Diderot 1713-1784 Born in Langres, France Son of cutler Educated by Jesuits Philosophical Thoughts, 1746 Active in salon culture Letter on the Blind, for Use of Those Who See, 1749

18 Denis Diderot 1713-1784 Encyclopedia, or a systematic dictionary of the sciences, arts, and crafts

19 Chretien-Guillaume de Lamoignon de Malesherbes 1721-1795 Under the Direction of his Father, the Chancellor, Malesherbes was official censor of the press during Reign of Louis XV

20 Jean le Rond d'Alembert 1717-1783 Mathematician & Philosopher Co-Editor of Encyclopedia Project with Diderot Author of the Preliminary Discourse to the Encyclopedia

21 17 volumes of articles, issued from 1751 to 1765 11 volumes of illustrations, issued from 1762 to 1772 18,000 pages of text 75,000 entries 44,000 main articles 28,000 secondary articles 2,500 illustration indices 20,000,000 words in total

22 Typical of Encyclopedia Plates on Technology

23 Frontispiece to Encyclopedia Symbolism of the Bright Light of Truth Reason and Philosophy remove the Veil

24 The philosophes of the Enlightenment PART III History 311

25 Frontispiece to Encyclopedia Symbolism of the Bright Light of Truth Reason and Philosophy remove the Veil

26 Marie-Thérèse Rodet Geoffrin

27 Madame de Tencin Julie de Lespinasse Marie du Deffand

28 Boucher Painting of Madame de Pompadour Mistress to Louis XV

29 Voltaire Francois Marie Arouet 1694-1778 Personification of the Enlightenment Poet, novelist, playwright, essayist Letters Concerning the English Nation, 1733 Candide, 1759 Philosophical Dictionary, 1764

30 Voltaire 1694-1778 English Visit 1726 (Rohan Affair) Letters Concerning the English Nation, 1733 Elected to French Academy, 1746 Candide, 1759 Philosophical Dictionary, 1764

31 Émilie, Marquise du Châtelet- Laumont (1706-1749) Frontispiece of Voltaire/Chatelet Translation of Newton Cirey Period (1733-1749)

32 Voltaire 1694-1778 English Visit 1726 (Rohan Affair) Letters Concerning the English Nation, 1733 Elected to French Academy, 1746 Candide, 1759 Philosophical Dictionary, 1764

33 Gottfried Wilhelm von Leibniz 1646-1716 Essay on Man, 1734 Alexander Pope 1688-1744 Theodicy, 1710

34 “Optimism” “The Best of All Possible Worlds” “Whatever is, is Right” System of Theodicy – Leibniz System of Theodicy – Leibniz –Metaphysical Evil –Moral Evil –Physical Evil

35 Voltaire 1694-1778 Berlin Period (1750-1753) Geneva/Ferney Period (1755- 1778) Lisbon Earthquake, 1755 Jean Calas Case (1762-1765) Ecrasez l’infame Triumphal Return to Paris, 1778

36 Jean-Jacques Rousseau 1712-1778 Founder of Romanticism? Contributions to Political Theory, Educational Theory & Literature Early Life Born in Geneva Aimless Early Life Arrives in Paris 1742 Confessions (circa 1770’s) The New Heloise, 1761 Emphasis on Feeling and Authenticity Challenge to the Emphasis on “Reason”

37 Jean-Jacques Rousseau 1712-1778 Discourse on the Arts and Sciences, 1751 Discourse on Inequality, 1755 The Social Contract, 1762 “The General Will”

38 Jean-Jacques Rousseau 1712-1778 Discourse on the Arts and Sciences, 1751 First Discourse (Prize Essay for the Academy of Dijon) “Has the re-establishment of arts and sciences contributed to purge or corrupt our manners?” “What a happiness it would be to live amongst us, if our exterior appearance were always the true representation of our hearts…” “Before art had new molded our behaviors, and taught our passions to talk an affected language, our manners were indeed rustic, but sincere and natural…”

39 Jean-Jacques Rousseau 1712-1778 Discourse on the Origins of Inequality, 1755 Second Discourse (Prize Essay for the Academy of Dijon) “What is the origin of inequality among men, and is it authorized by natural law?“ “All ran headlong to their chains, in hopes of securing their liberty; for they had just wit enough to perceive the advantages of political institutions, without experience enough to enable them to foresee the dangers.” Man is naturally good…in the state of nature. Property and greed create distinctions and create the need for the state and law

40 Jean-Jacques Rousseau 1712-1778 The Social Contract, 1762 “The General Will” How could this fraudulent contract of government be made legitimate? “Man is born free; and everywhere he is in chains. One thinks himself master of others, and still remains a greater slave than they. How did this change come about? I do not know. What can make it legitimate? That question I think I can answer.”

41 Jean-Jacques Rousseau 1712-1778 The Nature of the Social Compact “The General Will” “The problem is to find a form of association which will defend and protect with the whole common force the person and goods of each associate, and in which each, while uniting himself with all, may still obey himself alone, and remain as free as before. This is the fundamental problem of which the social contract provides the solution.” “Each of us puts his person and all his power in common under the supreme direction of the general will, and, in our corporate capacity, we receive each member as an indivisible part of the whole.”

42 Jean-Jacques Rousseau 1712-1778 The Nature of the Social Compact “The General Will” “In order then that the social compact may not be an empty formula, it tacitly includes the undertakings, which alone can give force to the rest, that whoever refuses to obey the general will shall be compelled to do so by the whole body. This means nothing less than that he will be forced to be free….” (Kramnick, p, 435) “There is often a great deal of difference between the will of all and the general will; the latter considers only the common interest, while the former takes private interest into account, and is no more than a sum of particular wills...” (Kramnick, p, 437)

43 Jean-Jacques Rousseau 1712-1778 The Nature of the Social Compact “The General Will” “As soon as public service ceases to be the chief business of the citizens and they would rather serve with their money than with their persons, the State is not far from its fall. When it is necessary to march out to war, they pay troops and stay at home: when it is necessary to meet in council, they name deputies and stay at home. By reason of idleness and money, they end by having soldiers to enslave their country and representatives to sell it.” “Good laws lead to the making of better ones; bad ones bring about worse. As soon as any man says of the affairs of the State, ‘What does it matter to me?,’ the State may be given up for lost.” (

44 Jean-Jacques Rousseau 1712-1778 The Nouvelle Heloise and Emile 1761-62 Great success of Sentimental Novel Emile Profession of Faith of the Savoyard Vicar Educational Theory

45 Francis Hutcheson 1694-1746 System of Moral Philosophy, 1755 “Moral Sense School” “A Sense is every determination of our minds to receive ideas independently of our will, and to have perceptions of pleasure and pain.” Five Senses, plus… Public Sense Moral Sense Sense of Honor

46 Adam Smith 1723-1790 The Wealth of Nations, 1776 Economic Liberalism laissez faire The Hidden Hand Theory of Progress

47 Claude Adrien Helvetius (1715-1771) De l’esprit, 1758 A Treatise on Man; his Intellectual Faculties and his Education, 1772 Radical Empiricist and Determinist Human behavior completely determined by education and social environment. We seek to maximize pleasure and minimize pain…anticipates the British Utilitarians

48 Immanuel Kant 1724-1804 Critique of Pure Reason, 1781 What is Enlightenment?, 1784 Critique of Practical Reason, 1788

49 Defining Characteristics Reason vs Revelation Reason vs Revelation Secular Secular Deism Deism Empirical Empirical Toleration Toleration –Freedom of Speech –Freedom of Press –Religious Freedom Anti-clerical and anti-authoritarian Anti-clerical and anti-authoritarian Emphasis upon Education Emphasis upon Education Equality before the Law Equality before the Law Cultural Relativism Cultural Relativism Theory of Progress Theory of Progress

50 Intellectual Assumptions of Liberal Democracy—What was the real impact of ideas in the Ancien Regime? “The Enlightenment was an Ancien Regime phenomenon. The Revolution transformed it by wrenching it, like so much else, into a new and different shape.” --William Doyle

51 Marquis de Condorcet 1743-1794 Noted Mathematician & Scientist Systematically Applied Mathematics to the social sciences Advocate for Human Rights, including rights for women and blacks Directly involved in the French Revolution Theory of Progress

52 Olympe de Gouges 1745-1793 Feminist Author and Advocate Declaration of the Rights of Women

53 The Abolition of Slavery in France, 1791 Slavery Abolished in Colonies, 1794

54 François-Dominique Toussaint L'Ouverture C. 1743-1803 Ex-Slave and Leader of Revolt In Haiti During the Revolution

55 James Madison 1751-1836 Fourth President of United States and “Father of the U.S. Constitution” Federalist Papers, 1787-88 Fears of Direct Democracy “Factions” Balance of Powers Republic over Democracy

56 Thomas Jefferson 1743-1826 When, in the course of human events, it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the powers of earth the separate and equal station to which the laws of nature and nature’s God entitle them…

57 Thomas Jefferson 1743-1826 We hold these truths to be self- evident: that all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their creator with certain unalienable rights; that among these are life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness; that to secure these rights, governments are instituted among men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed; that whenever any form of government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the right of the people to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new government, laying its foundation on such principles, and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their safety and happiness.

58 Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized Warrants

59 No person shall be held to answer for any capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offence to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

60 POLITICAL LIBERALISM 1. Men are born and remain free and equal in rights. Social distinctions may be founded only upon the general good. 1. Men are born and remain free and equal in rights. Social distinctions may be founded only upon the general good. 2. The aim of all political association is the preservation of the natural and imprescriptible rights of man. These rights are liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression. 2. The aim of all political association is the preservation of the natural and imprescriptible rights of man. These rights are liberty, property, security, and resistance to oppression.

61 POLITICAL LIBERALISM 3. The principle of all sovereignty resides essentially in the nation. No body nor individual may exercise any authority which does not proceed directly from the nation. 3. The principle of all sovereignty resides essentially in the nation. No body nor individual may exercise any authority which does not proceed directly from the nation. 4. Liberty consists in the freedom to do everything which injures no one else; hence the exercise of the natural rights of each man has no limits except those which assure to the other members of the society the enjoyment of the same rights. These limits can only be determined by law. 4. Liberty consists in the freedom to do everything which injures no one else; hence the exercise of the natural rights of each man has no limits except those which assure to the other members of the society the enjoyment of the same rights. These limits can only be determined by law.

62 POLITICAL LIBERALISM 5. Law can only prohibit such actions as are hurtful to society. Nothing may be prevented which is not forbidden by law, and no one may be forced to do anything not provided for by law. 5. Law can only prohibit such actions as are hurtful to society. Nothing may be prevented which is not forbidden by law, and no one may be forced to do anything not provided for by law. 6. Law is the expression of the general will. Every citizen has a right to participate personally, or through his representative, in its foundation. It must be the same for all, whether it protects or punishes. All citizens, being equal in the eyes of the law, are equally eligible to all dignities and to all public positions and occupations, according to their abilities, and without distinction except that of their virtues and talents. 6. Law is the expression of the general will. Every citizen has a right to participate personally, or through his representative, in its foundation. It must be the same for all, whether it protects or punishes. All citizens, being equal in the eyes of the law, are equally eligible to all dignities and to all public positions and occupations, according to their abilities, and without distinction except that of their virtues and talents.

63 POLITICAL LIBERALISM 10. No one shall be disquieted on account of his opinions, including his religious views, provided their manifestation does not disturb the public order established by law. 10. No one shall be disquieted on account of his opinions, including his religious views, provided their manifestation does not disturb the public order established by law. 11. The free communication of ideas and opinions is one of the most precious of the rights of man. Every citizen may, accordingly, speak, write, and print with freedom, but shall be responsible for such abuses of this freedom as shall be defined by law. 11. The free communication of ideas and opinions is one of the most precious of the rights of man. Every citizen may, accordingly, speak, write, and print with freedom, but shall be responsible for such abuses of this freedom as shall be defined by law.

64 Implicit in the Declaration Declaration of Independence –The Doctrine of Equality –The Doctrine of Consent –The Doctrine of Popular Sovereignty –The Right of Revolution

65 LIBERALISM Political Liberalism Political Liberalism Economic Liberalism Economic Liberalism Social Liberalism Social Liberalism


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