2 Characteristics of the Enlightenment Rationalism reason is the arbiter of all things.Cosmology a new concept of man, his existence on earth, & the place of the earth in the universe.Secularism application of the methods of science to religion & philosophy.
3 Utilitarianism the greatest good for the greatest number. Scientific MethodMathematical analysisExperimentationInductive reasoning.Utilitarianism the greatest good for the greatest number.Tolerance No opinion is worth burning your neighbor for.
4 Optimism & Self-Confidence The belief that man is intrinsically good.The belief in social progress.FreedomOf thought and expression.Bring liberty to all men (modern battle against absolutism).Education of the Masses
5 Legal ReformsJustice, kindness, and charity no torture or indiscriminant incarceration.Due process of law.ConstitutionalismWritten constitutions listing citizens, rights.Cosmopolitanism.
6 Core Beliefs Truth discovered through reason What is natural, is also good and reasonablePeople can find happiness in this lifeSociety and humankind can progress and improvePeople’s liberty should be protected by the lawMs. Ramos
8 Thomas Hobbes Leviathan Life in the state of nature is “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short”Strongest element: passionSelf-preservation basis of his thoughtMs. Ramos
9 To secure peace- est sovereign pwr not subject to civil law Man against manTo secure peace- est sovereign pwr not subject to civil lawMonarchy is most effectiveMs. Ramos
10 John Locke English Natural rights Right to overthrow govt that does not protect “natural” rightsState of nature is not perpetual warMs. Ramos
11 Hobbes vs. Locke Philosopher What drives human behavior? Best form of governmentHobbesPassionAbsolute MonarchyLockeReasonConstitutionalismMs. Ramos
12 Baron de Montesquieu French Separation of powers Checks & balances Ms. Ramos
13 Jean Jacques Rousseau French Natural goodness & individual freedom Govt by “general will” of the peopleSocial ContractMs. Ramos
14 Cesare B. Beccaria Italian Justice system Accused had rights Advocated abolishing tortureGovt: greatest good for greatest number of peopleMs. Ramos
15 Common Sense Pierre Bayle’s Historical and Critical Dictionary demolished traditional conceptsDenis Diderot’s Encyclopedia ( ),encapsulated the whole of human knowledgeMs. Ramos
16 Voltaire’s Philosophical Letters encouraged readers to cast off inherited misconceptionsJean-Jacques Rousseau’s Émile (1762)Argued for new pedagogy (methods of teaching)Ms. Ramos
17 War on tradition Discuss this one- Don’t copy Voltaire: Christianity often was “l’infame,” the detestable thingDeismbelief in nature’s God who created universe according to natural lawsJohn Locke’s Letter Concerning Tolerationurged openness to all religious expressions (except Roman Catholicism and atheism)Freemasonryblend of Egyptian polytheism with medieval guilds and brotherly loveMs. Ramos
18 Social Contracts Discuss this one- Don’t copy John Locke’s Second Treatise of Civil Governmentgovernment contract powered by consent of property ownersMontesquieu’s Spirit of Laws (1748)laws evolved to be spirit of a nation“constitutionalism” should protect freedoms of citizens“separation of powers” create checks and balancesRousseau’s Social Contract (1762)state guided by “moral and collective body” of individual citizensJefferson: American Declaration of IndependenceMs. Ramos
20 Enlightenment Ideas:Encouraged people to use observation to make new discoveriesRely on reasonQuestion traditional authorityMs. Ramos
21 Enlightenment Ideas Spread from Europe to the Americas “the philosophes,” create the mvmt of the EnlightenmentCentered in France and England, also Scotland, Italy and NetherlandsKant: “Dare to know!”Influenced the American RevolutionMs. Ramos