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Enlightenment Ms. Ramos.

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Presentation on theme: "Enlightenment Ms. Ramos."— Presentation transcript:

1 Enlightenment Ms. Ramos

2 Characteristics of the Enlightenment
Rationalism  reason is the arbiter of all things. Cosmology  a new concept of man, his existence on earth, & the place of the earth in the universe. Secularism  application of the methods of science to religion & philosophy.

3 Utilitarianism  the greatest good for the greatest number.
Scientific Method Mathematical analysis Experimentation Inductive reasoning. Utilitarianism  the greatest good for the greatest number. Tolerance  No opinion is worth burning your neighbor for.

4 Optimism & Self-Confidence
The belief that man is intrinsically good. The belief in social progress. Freedom Of thought and expression. Bring liberty to all men (modern battle against absolutism). Education of the Masses

5 Legal Reforms Justice, kindness, and charity  no torture or indiscriminant incarceration. Due process of law. Constitutionalism Written constitutions  listing citizens, rights. Cosmopolitanism.

6 Core Beliefs Truth discovered through reason
What is natural, is also good and reasonable People can find happiness in this life Society and humankind can progress and improve People’s liberty should be protected by the law Ms. Ramos

7 Enlightenment Philosophers
Ms. Ramos

8 Thomas Hobbes Leviathan
Life in the state of nature is “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short” Strongest element: passion Self-preservation basis of his thought Ms. Ramos

9 To secure peace- est sovereign pwr not subject to civil law
Man against man To secure peace- est sovereign pwr not subject to civil law Monarchy is most effective Ms. Ramos

10 John Locke English Natural rights
Right to overthrow govt that does not protect “natural” rights State of nature is not perpetual war Ms. Ramos

11 Hobbes vs. Locke Philosopher What drives human behavior?
Best form of government Hobbes Passion Absolute Monarchy Locke Reason Constitutionalism Ms. Ramos

12 Baron de Montesquieu French Separation of powers Checks & balances
Ms. Ramos

13 Jean Jacques Rousseau French Natural goodness & individual freedom
Govt by “general will” of the people Social Contract Ms. Ramos

14 Cesare B. Beccaria Italian Justice system Accused had rights
Advocated abolishing torture Govt: greatest good for greatest number of people Ms. Ramos

15 Common Sense Pierre Bayle’s Historical and Critical Dictionary
demolished traditional concepts Denis Diderot’s Encyclopedia ( ), encapsulated the whole of human knowledge Ms. Ramos

16 Voltaire’s Philosophical Letters
encouraged readers to cast off inherited misconceptions Jean-Jacques Rousseau’s Émile (1762) Argued for new pedagogy (methods of teaching) Ms. Ramos

17 War on tradition Discuss this one- Don’t copy
Voltaire: Christianity often was “l’infame,” the detestable thing Deism belief in nature’s God who created universe according to natural laws John Locke’s Letter Concerning Toleration urged openness to all religious expressions (except Roman Catholicism and atheism) Freemasonry blend of Egyptian polytheism with medieval guilds and brotherly love Ms. Ramos

18 Social Contracts Discuss this one- Don’t copy
John Locke’s Second Treatise of Civil Government government contract powered by consent of property owners Montesquieu’s Spirit of Laws (1748) laws evolved to be spirit of a nation “constitutionalism” should protect freedoms of citizens “separation of powers” create checks and balances Rousseau’s Social Contract (1762) state guided by “moral and collective body” of individual citizens Jefferson: American Declaration of Independence Ms. Ramos

19 Effects of the Enlightenment
Ms. Ramos

20 Enlightenment Ideas: Encouraged people to use observation to make new discoveries Rely on reason Question traditional authority Ms. Ramos

21 Enlightenment Ideas Spread from Europe to the Americas
“the philosophes,” create the mvmt of the Enlightenment Centered in France and England, also Scotland, Italy and Netherlands Kant: “Dare to know!” Influenced the American Revolution Ms. Ramos

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