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Collapse of the Carolingian State: Four Themes 1. Family conflicts 2. Attacks from outside 3. Influence of the church 4. Influence of the secular nobility.

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Presentation on theme: "Collapse of the Carolingian State: Four Themes 1. Family conflicts 2. Attacks from outside 3. Influence of the church 4. Influence of the secular nobility."— Presentation transcript:

1 Collapse of the Carolingian State: Four Themes 1. Family conflicts 2. Attacks from outside 3. Influence of the church 4. Influence of the secular nobility

2 Image Link: Carolingian Family Tree: Map Link: The Treaty of Verdun, 843:

3 840-43 War between Lothar, Louis the German, Charles the Bald and Pippin II of Aquitaine 841 Battle of Fontenoy 843 Treaty of Verdun 852 Imprisonment of Pippin II in monastery

4 Ideology of familial love vs. ambition 855 Death of Lothar. Dissolution of Lothar’s kingdom Louis II (emperor, r. 855-75) Lothar II (Lotharingia, r. 855-69) Charles of Provence (r. 855-63)

5 Map Link: Frankish Empire, 855: http://www.tacitus.nu/images/kartor/Frank/Frank855.png Map Link: Frankish Empire, 870: http://www.tacitus.nu/images/kartor/Frank/Frank870.png

6 870 Treaty of Meersen. Negotiations over Italy begin Louis II (emperor, r. 855-75) Louis the German (r. 833-76) Charles the Bald (r. 840-77) 875 Charles the Bald takes Italy, imperial title

7 877-88 Ongoing conflict over Frankish empire 885 Brief reunification of empire by Charles the Fat (r. 876-87, son of Louis the German) 887 Deposition of Charles the Fat by Arnulf of Carinthia (r. 887-99) 888 Division of empire among mostly non- Carolingians

8 846 Muslims attack Rome. 847 Lothar allies with papacy Waves of Viking attacks, c. 835-91 Impact of Frankish defenses Viking awareness of and involvement in Frankish politics (e.g. alliance with Pippin II in 855)

9 Map Link: Invasions in the IXth-Xth Centuries:

10 Influence of the church: Papal influence, e.g. John VIII (p. 872-82) crowning Charles the Bald emperor in 875 Reciprocal relationship of Charles the Bald and the church: benefices, immunities, privileges, preferments

11 Influence of the secular nobility: Buying support using honores (honours) 877 Quierzy Capitulary: honores becoming hereditary Noble factions, esp. Welfs (family of Judith) and Robertians (family of Robert the Strong)

12 Influence of the secular nobility: General noble support of Carolingian kingship 888 Death of Charles the Fat. Division of empire when no adult, male, legitimate Carolingian heir available. Arnulf of Carinthia/ E. Francia as illegitimate Carolingian

13 Reasons for the Carolingian Collapse? 1. Family conflicts 2. Attacks from outside 3. Influence of the church 4. Influence of the secular nobility Also: Dynastic weakness? Division of inheritance?

14 Nithard (c. 800-843/44) Grandson of Charlemagne by daughter Bertha Received both religious and military education Sided with Charles the Bald in wars between sons of Louis the Pious Fought at Fontenoy in 841

15 Nithard (c. 800-843/44) De Dissensionibus Filiorum Ludovici Pii ad Annum usque 843 (On the Dissensions of the Sons of Louis the Pious up to the Year 843), written at request of Charles the Bald Died in 843 or (probably) 844 fighting Vikings

16 Two Monastic Annals on the Treaty of Verdun, 843 Annals of St-Bertin Annals of Fulda


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