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Part 1: Music in Early North America Chapter 4: Secular Music in the Colonial, Revolutionary, and Federal Periods America’s Musical Landscape 5th edition.

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Presentation on theme: "Part 1: Music in Early North America Chapter 4: Secular Music in the Colonial, Revolutionary, and Federal Periods America’s Musical Landscape 5th edition."— Presentation transcript:

1 Part 1: Music in Early North America Chapter 4: Secular Music in the Colonial, Revolutionary, and Federal Periods America’s Musical Landscape 5th edition PowerPoint by Myra Lewinter Malamut Georgian Court University © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

2 © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Part 1: Music in Early North America Chapter 4: Secular Music in the Colonial, Revolutionary, and Federal Periods2 Secular Music in the Colonial, Revolutionary, and Federal Periods Late 1720s: Public concerts began to be performed in some of the larger American cities Simple and popular pieces were performed Consisted of marches, dance tunes, program music, folk songs, popular songs from contemporary theater  Program music– Instrumental pieces purporting to imitate sounds of nature or to “tell” a story  Programmatic battle pieces, imitating the sounds of a battle, were popular Yet for most of the eighteenth century, Americans showed little interest in formal concert music

3 © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Part 1: Music in Early North America Chapter 4: Secular Music in the Colonial, Revolutionary, and Federal Periods3 Music in Everyday Experience American music included home music work music music for entertainment music for dancing In rural areas work activities were social gatherings with singing, music, dancing barn raisings maple sugaring corn husking

4 © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Part 1: Music in Early North America Chapter 4: Secular Music in the Colonial, Revolutionary, and Federal Periods4 Music in Everyday Experience: New Orleans New Orleans music must have been rich and varied due to the cultural diversity of its inhabitants African Native American Caribbean French Spanish

5 © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Part 1: Music in Early North America Chapter 4: Secular Music in the Colonial, Revolutionary, and Federal Periods5 Music in Everyday Experience: Sheet Music and Instruments Late 1700s: Music publishing was an important business Sheet music for amateur musicians was popular Simple vocal and piano pieces were called “household music” More Americans had violins, guitars, oboes, flutes, keyboard instruments including Harpsichords Virginals—Small and often elaborately decorated Fortepianos—The predecessor of the piano, but smaller and more delicate; produced varied dynamics as its name implies Children and young women learned music by taking lessons from immigrant professional musicians

6 © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Part 1: Music in Early North America Chapter 4: Secular Music in the Colonial, Revolutionary, and Federal Periods6 Music in Everyday Experience: The Contributions of Servants Talented African American and white servants were hired and expected to play music African Americans sometimes supplied music for Social dancing Dancing schools Taverns Formal balls The favored instrument to accompany dancing was the fiddle—Smaller and lighter than today’s violin, with a louder and more vibrant sound Fiddles: Used for the barnyard or ballroom

7 © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Part 1: Music in Early North America Chapter 4: Secular Music in the Colonial, Revolutionary, and Federal Periods7 Music in Everyday Experience: Prestigious Musical Amateurs American amateurs became increasingly active Many joined musical societies in larger cities Musical societies presented instrumental or choral music mostly written by European composers Professional foreign musicians often joined with the amateur performers for their concerts which lasted three or more hours

8 © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Part 1: Music in Early North America Chapter 4: Secular Music in the Colonial, Revolutionary, and Federal Periods8 Music in Everyday Experience: Prestigious Musical Amateurs The first performances in America of important European symphonic and choral works were given by Moravian musicians whose music and performances were of the highest quality who were amateurs only in the sense that they composed and performed for enjoyment, not for money who attracted audiences from long distances including Benjamin Franklin and George Washington

9 © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Part 1: Music in Early North America Chapter 4: Secular Music in the Colonial, Revolutionary, and Federal Periods9 Prestigious Musical Amateurs: Thomas Jefferson ( ) Jefferson was an amateur violinist who participated enthusiastically in music activities and believed that the arts were meaningful only as they bore relevance to everyday life; i.e., must be practical to be worthwhile (a common belief of early Americans) Jefferson believed the musical arts to be an essential part of the human experience Jefferson enjoyed playing duets with Patrick Henry

10 © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Part 1: Music in Early North America Chapter 4: Secular Music in the Colonial, Revolutionary, and Federal Periods10 Prestigious Musical Amateurs: Benjamin Franklin ( ) Franklin played guitar, harp, and his popular invention, the armonica or glass harmonica; wrote verses for favorite tunes He warned Americans not to cultivate taste for the arts before they could produce arts with European quality Considered the arts as appropriate at times in America Thought that the American music scene was inferior to music in Europe The glass harmonica consisted of a series of hollow, hemispheric glass bowls or bells, each with a short neck. The glasses are mounted on a horizontal spindle, each fitted inside the next largest with a finger width of brim exposed on which to play. The performer keeps the spindle turning through a trough of water by working a pedal, producing a delicate sound by rubbing the wet rims of the glasses with the fingers.

11 © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Part 1: Music in Early North America Chapter 4: Secular Music in the Colonial, Revolutionary, and Federal Periods11 Prestigious Musical Amateurs: Songs in Early America The first secular songs published in America were by Europeans, many from England, and usually were associated with theater But while the singing school masters wrote religious songs to teach students, other amateur Americans began to write secular music

12 © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Part 1: Music in Early North America Chapter 4: Secular Music in the Colonial, Revolutionary, and Federal Periods12 Prestigious Musical Amateurs: Francis Hopkinson ( ) Francis Hopkinson, first secretary of the Navy, signer of the Declaration of Independence, was the first American to write art songs An art song is intended for concert or recital performance The song text is a high quality poem by a known poet The expressive music is to enhance the poem’s meaning Performed in original language so as not to mar translations American art songs were suitable for amateur musicians Hopkinson’s art songs were European in style But his songs had texts often based upon American subjects

13 © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Part 1: Music in Early North America Chapter 4: Secular Music in the Colonial, Revolutionary, and Federal Periods13 Music in Everyday Experience: Professional Composers Talented and accomplished European musicians who immigrated to the United States enriched the American concert experience before and after the turn of the nineteenth century, including Benjamin Carr Alexander Reinagle

14 © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Part 1: Music in Early North America Chapter 4: Secular Music in the Colonial, Revolutionary, and Federal Periods14 Professional Composers: Benjamin Carr ( ) Composer Singer Conductor Pianist and organist Music publisher Music store owner Carr arrived in Philadelphia from England after the Revolution One of the first to be active in the music business in the US Made lasting contributions to music performance, business, and appreciation in North America

15 © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Part 1: Music in Early North America Chapter 4: Secular Music in the Colonial, Revolutionary, and Federal Periods15 Professional Composers: Alexander Reinagle ( ) Raised in Edinburgh by an Austrian father and Scottish mother, Carr taught music in New York City before settling in Philadelphia as director of a theater company and director of a concert series Composed the Philadelphia Sonatas A set of piano pieces that includes the three movement Sonata II in E, the third example of which is Listening Example 16

16 © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Part 1: Music in Early North America Chapter 4: Secular Music in the Colonial, Revolutionary, and Federal Periods16 Terms: Sonata: A large musical form for one or more solo instruments, consisting of several movements Rondo: The opening melodic material (A) returns to alternate with the other material (B, C, etc.) The return of A lends balance and unity Contrasting sections add interest The mood is typically bright, with fast tempo Examples of Rondo Form: A B A C A A B A B A B A A B A C A D A

17 © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Part 1: Music in Early North America Chapter 4: Secular Music in the Colonial, Revolutionary, and Federal Periods17 Listening Example 16 Sonata II in E third movement By Alexander Reinagle Listening Guide page 72 Form: Modified rondo with longer and complex contrasting sections Tempo: Allegro Meter: Duple Key: E Major (the uppercase “E” in the title is indicative of a major key) A B A C A D A This sonata is for the pianoforte, an early piano, smaller and lighter than the modern grand piano “Sonata II in E” has three movements Notice the Alberti bass, the broken-chord pattern in the left hand; i.e., one note of the chord is played at a time

18 © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Part 1: Music in Early North America Chapter 4: Secular Music in the Colonial, Revolutionary, and Federal Periods18 Early American Theater Musical theater became popular in some areas during the 1730s European professional musicians performed in concert halls and theaters Theatrical performances made these musician/composers’ music popular and provided them with a living These professionals provided performance and educational opportunities previously denied colonial Americans  Early centers of theatrical music activity included  Charleston, North Carolina  Williamsburg, Virginia

19 © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Part 1: Music in Early North America Chapter 4: Secular Music in the Colonial, Revolutionary, and Federal Periods19 Early American Theater During Wartime 1778: Continental Congress decreed that “frequenting Play Houses and theatrical entertainments has a fatal tendency to divert the minds of people from a due attention to the means necessary for the defense of their country and preservation of their liberties” Congress banned all theatrical performances at that time

20 © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Part 1: Music in Early North America Chapter 4: Secular Music in the Colonial, Revolutionary, and Federal Periods20 Early American Theater: After the American Revolution 1786: The ban on theatrical performances was lifted 1787: The first national copyright act Protected printed materials including music for fourteen years with the possibility of renewal for another fourteen This law encouraged foreign (mostly British) musicians to come to America, where they Performed onstage and in orchestra pits Taught music to aspiring amateurs Composed many pieces, including America’s first popular songs

21 © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Part 1: Music in Early North America Chapter 4: Secular Music in the Colonial, Revolutionary, and Federal Periods21 Early American Musical Theater Grew in Popularity… As interest in music and the theater moved north to New York and then Philadelphia Philadelphia dominated the music scene Theater patrons included George Washington  Overruled the Quakers’ disapproval of theater  Declared that theater elevated one’s manners  Yet audiences in cheaper seats (called the gallery) were rowdy, yelling at performers, demanding favorite songs, vocally criticizing the performance, tossing bottles and fruit onstage and into the pit

22 © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Part 1: Music in Early North America Chapter 4: Secular Music in the Colonial, Revolutionary, and Federal Periods22 Early American Musical Theater Offered a Potpourri of Entertainment Performances, often four to five hours, included A main drama Plus a shorter, lighter, often comic piece Music was added even into nonmusical plays Musical entertainment occurred between the dramatic pieces and after the comedy A march played at the end as the audience left to attend a nearby dance

23 © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Part 1: Music in Early North America Chapter 4: Secular Music in the Colonial, Revolutionary, and Federal Periods23 Early American Musical Theater: Popular Types of Entertainment Eighteenth-century English plays were adapted for American taste Shorter and lighter than contemporary European works, they included more comedy Ballad opera was the most popular type of performance A simple unsophisticated musical play Spoken dialogue replaced recitative (sung speech) of opera Popular songs of the day appeared throughout the show The first ballad opera (1728 in England) to become popular in America was John Gay’s Beggar’s Opera

24 © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Part 1: Music in Early North America Chapter 4: Secular Music in the Colonial, Revolutionary, and Federal Periods24 Early American Musical Theater: Composers in America 1781: A short musical play credited to Francis Hopkinson may have been America’s earliest original musical theater work But Hopkinson probably just set new words to existing music Foreign professionals, such as Alexander Reinagle, dominated the American popular music stage, significantly affecting the development of music in America

25 © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Part 1: Music in Early North America Chapter 4: Secular Music in the Colonial, Revolutionary, and Federal Periods25 Early American Bands 1777: Washington issued an order requiring military music be provided to American troops The first American military bands were established at that time Consisted of drums and small flutes called fifes Called fife and drum corps  Many of the members were African American These bands had uses including announcing  Beginning and end of the day  Mealtimes and activities  Commands on the battlefield that could not otherwise be heard over musket fire

26 © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Part 1: Music in Early North America Chapter 4: Secular Music in the Colonial, Revolutionary, and Federal Periods26 Early Military Bands: History Colonial military bands began to develop to be like European bands 1792: American laws standardized the formation of American military bands to resemble European models Included woodwinds, brass and percussion 1798: President John Adams signed into law the creation of the United States Marine Corps Included thirty-two drummers and fifers, drum major, fife major Added later: Two horns, two clarinets, bassoon, bass drum 1801: This band performed for Jefferson’s inauguration 1830: Brass instruments became significant members of military bands due to improvements to these instruments (valves added)

27 © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Part 1: Music in Early North America Chapter 4: Secular Music in the Colonial, Revolutionary, and Federal Periods27 Early Bands: New Orleans Eighteenth-century New Orleans had its own strong musical heritage Military bands played a prominent role Black musicians, slave and free, provided music for balls and parades Blacks dominated the transition of the military funeral parade to a civic custom First Battalion of Free Men of Color’s band included people identified as Creole-of-Color = Partly European, active in French-dominated city culture

28 © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Part 1: Music in Early North America Chapter 4: Secular Music in the Colonial, Revolutionary, and Federal Periods28 Listening Example 17 Yankee Doodle Anonymous Listening guide page 75 Tune: Origin of tune and meaning of title are unknown Meter: Duple Form: Strophic Hear the high-pitched fifes carry the tune, while drums mark the rhythm with distinctive beats and rolls “Yankee Doodle” was a favorite tune played by American military bands to entertain the public First appearing in print in 1792, the British first sang the song to make fun of the Yankees, who later adopted it as their own, adding countless verses of text

29 © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Part 1: Music in Early North America Chapter 4: Secular Music in the Colonial, Revolutionary, and Federal Periods29 Part 1 Summary The earliest North American music was that of American Indians Ritual, dance, ceremony, work Most consists of songs sometimes accompanied with percussion instruments Drums, rattles, rasps, flute Contemporary Native American music reflects traditions and new styles, some borrowed Even the new songs remain a potent source of power in American Indian culture

30 © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Part 1: Music in Early North America Chapter 4: Secular Music in the Colonial, Revolutionary, and Federal Periods30 Part 1 Summary: Beginning in the Sixteenth Century Europeans came to settle in the New World Native Americans in Florida and Southwest missions learned Roman Catholic music and European secular music German and English speaking Protestants established permanent settlements in America Brought hymns, psalm tunes, folk and other secular music The first book printed in America was a psalter, the Bay Psalm Book Slaves sang work songs and other songs of African custom European Americans sang ballads and played fiddle tunes

31 © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Part 1: Music in Early North America Chapter 4: Secular Music in the Colonial, Revolutionary, and Federal Periods31 Part 1 Summary: Singing Schools Early efforts to improve singing in New England’s churches led to the forming of singing schools Singing school masters composed their own tunes Singing school masters became the members of The First New England School of Composers  Their music was uniquely American  William Billings, Daniel Read, and others composed  Psalm tunes, hymns, fuging tunes, patriotic songs for singing school, church, home

32 © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Part 1: Music in Early North America Chapter 4: Secular Music in the Colonial, Revolutionary, and Federal Periods32 Part 1 Summary: Eighteenth Century Secular Music Americans’ musical tastes became more secular and varied Music supplied entertainment at home, at concerts, and theater People learned to play instruments and sing Musical societies formed to perform instrumental and choral music Amateurs performed in recitals and composed songs and keyboard music Moravians composed music of unprecedented complexity and quality among other early American compositions

33 © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Part 1: Music in Early North America Chapter 4: Secular Music in the Colonial, Revolutionary, and Federal Periods33 Part 1 Summary Concluded Public concerts and musical theater had become a popular form of entertainment by the middle of the eighteenth century European musicians were involved with early American theater European musicians adapted popular European plays and ballad operas to suit the less sophisticated American taste Band music became increasingly popular Fife and drum corps, as well as military bands  Played public concerts  Performed military functions

34 © 2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Part 1: Music in Early North America Chapter 4: Secular Music in the Colonial, Revolutionary, and Federal Periods34 Image Credits Slide 3: “Music is Contagious,” painted by William Sidney Mount ( ) ©COREL Slide 7: “Eighteenth-century chamber music concert” ©CORBIS Slide 27: “Taylor, the Drummer Boy of the 78 th United States Colored Infantry Regiment, Poses Proudly With His Drum” ©CORBIS


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