Presentation on theme: "Jazz – Chapter 3 Roots of Jazz"— Presentation transcript:
1Jazz – Chapter 3 Roots of Jazz IB Music SLJazz – Chapter 3Roots of Jazz
2The Roots of JazzJazz is also rooted in the cultural trends that reached back far into the nineteenth century.Jazz synthesized various kinds of (primarily African American) music making, such as:folk traditionspopular cultureEuropean concert musicRadical changes in dance music in the first two decades of the twentieth centuryThe new technologies of radio and recording.
3What kind of music is jazz? Congressional resolution of 1987Art formPopular musicFolk musicJazz is an African American music.musicians may be black or white or any other ethnicity.African American: not a race but rather an ethnic group (cultural)Ethnic features like music can be learned and shared.African American musical principles
4Spirituals: call and response with religious poetry. Folk TraditionsServe to establish a persistent musical identityHelped create the hybrid nature of American cultureVarious GenresBalladsWork songsField hollersSpirituals: call and response with religious poetry.Two kinds: polished Fisk Jubilee singers style; orally transmitted Pentecostal church singing.By 1920s, gospel music had developed. Spirituals are highly interactional, which influenced jazz musicians.
6BluesThree-line (AAB) stanza distinguishes it from other forms, which usually were structured with two or four lines. Blues also has a distinctive chord progression.Unlike the ballad, the blues was personalCountry BluesCombination of folk elements and new technologyPerformed by solitary male musicians accompanying themselves on guitar in the American South; form was looseVaudeville (Classic) BluesWhen blues crossed over into pop music, jazz musicians got involved.Blues became more codified (twelve-bar stanzas)W.C. Handy: RecordingsBessie Smith ( )
9Popular Music Minstrelsy Blacks found they could make more money highlighting their blackness.Racism made it difficult for black performers to succeedIn 1843 in New York, the Virginia Minstrels put on a show in blackfaceRacist exaggerations in appearance and behavior were typical.White audiences enjoyed these depictions.Black performersAfter Emancipation, black performers started to perform in minstrelsyRacial stereotypes persisted in vaudeville, film (The Jazz Singer), and radio (Amos and Andy).Musicians, such as Louis Armstrong, who acted in film had to play into these stereotypes.
10Dance Music Early slave musicians used their music for dance Nineteenth-century musicians were hired as servants.The dancing crazeLate nineteenth centuryEarly part of the twentieth century dancing began done in restaurants and cabarets.The Castles and James Reese Europe ( )African American-derived dances became a fad for white AmericaThe music was not toned down and was often ragtime.The Castles' musical director was James Reese EuropeWorld War IEurope died in 1919He left two kinds of dance bands: small and inexpensive, suited for jazz, and large dance orchestra
12Art Music Learning music theory and notation is important Through public education, blacks learned classical musicClassically trained blacks went to jazz to make a livingBrass BandsOriginally from England, they became the "people's" orchestra.John Philip Sousa ( ). Took over the U.S. Marine band and made it into a top-notch, world-famous concert ensemble.Every town had a brass band made up of local townsfolk to play at parades and dances.Brass bands and jazzAfrican Americans formed their own brass bandsInfluenced jazz directly through march formThe third strain is the trio and is in a new key
14RagtimeRagtime embodied the mix of African American and white art, popular, and folk musics.The name comes from "ragged time."Coon SongsEarly form of ragtime (later form of minstrelsy)Cakewalk: a ragtime exhibition dance parodying white formal dancingRagtime pieces and Scott Joplin ( )Improvised piano ragtimeBorn in East Texas1894 settled in Sidelia, Missouri, led a black marching band and studied composition.Moved St. Louis then New York; published rags, a ballet, and an operaDied in 1917 of syphilis
15The Path to Jazz: Wilbur Sweatman (1882-1961) Wilbur Sweatman represents the new generation of musiciansA clarinet player in show business, he became well known around 1910.Ragtime composerIn 1916 he made his first recordingsWhen Does Ragtime Become Jazz?By 1916 recording was taking over from the publication of sheet musicBlack musicians provided music that offered a new sense of cultural identityJazz as we know it started in New Orleans, as ragtime, blues, march music, and social dance combined.