3 Emotion Emotions are feelings which come Damasio: emotions are purely physical signals of the body which react to the external stimuliJames-Lange: the state of our body determines the emotions we experienceEmotions are feelings which comeabout as a result of these physiologicalchanges, rather than being their cause.
4 Emotion: 3 Components Physiological changes Subjective feeling arousal of autonomic nervous system - the ‘fight or flight response’increased heart rate, increased blood pressureendocrine system - secretion of hormonesbrain activity – PET and fMRI scansunconsciousSubjective feelinghappiness, fear, sadness, disgustactivated by a person, object or eventprivateAssociated behavioursmiling, running away, laughing, withdrawal
5 EmotionEmotions serve as a guide to evaluate how important situations are – not always a conscious processLazarus and Folkman: it’s not the emotion, but how we appraise the situation and cope with it that is important (think depression)Cognitive appraisal is an interpretationSo, a perceived stressor → physiological response (fight or flight) → cognitive appraisal of the arousal → decision of what to do based on previous experience
6 Biological Factors in Emotion thalamusAmygdala is involved in emotionIt plays a critical role in emotional memoriesAdrenaline is released with strong emotionsLeDoux’s model of biological pathways ofemotion in the brain:Short routeEmotional stimulus (sound and/or sight) gets sent to thalamus for transfer; transfer to amygdala and causes an emotional responseLong routeEmotional stimulus gets sent to the thalamus for transfer; transfer to sensory cortex ; part goes to hippocampus for comparison to known prior experiences; appraisal happens; behaviour matches appraisalBoth pathways can be triggered simultaneouslyUnconscious
7 Biological Factors in Emotion LeDoux’s model of biological pathways of emotion in the brain:Gives humans flexibility to react quickly in dangerous situations or more rationally to avoid inappropriate responsesAllows for flexibility in response. In the case of danger, the fast and direct pathway is useful.But, the long pathway allows for a more thorough evaluation – helps you to avoid an inappropriate response.
8 Explain your reaction to hearing somebody creeping around your house in the middle of the night, only to realise that it is probably one of your parents getting a glass of water.
9 Schacter & Singer’s Two-Factor Theory Please read green text pg regarding 2-factor theory.Take appropriate notes
10 Schachter and Singer (1962) An event causes physiological arousal first - you must then identify a reason for this arousal and then you are able to experience and label the emotion.Participants were given an injection of either adrenaline or a placebo and then put into 1 of 4 conditions:Adrenalin Ignorant - participants were given an adrenalin injection and not told of the effects of the drug.Adrenalin Informed - participants were given an adrenalin injection and warned of the ‘side effects’ of the drug (hand shake, heart pounding, dry mouth etc.). The participants were therefore prepared for the effects of the adrenalin (although they thought they were to do with the suproxin).Adrenalin Misinformed - participants were given an adrenalin injection and told to expect side effects but were told these would be numb feet and headache. These participants would, therefore, not be expecting the effects of the adrenalin.Control Group - Placebo - participants were given an injection that would have no effect and were given no instructions of what to expect.
11 Schachter and Singer (1962) Participants were then allocated to either the euphoria condition or the anger condition.In the euphoria situation a stooge in a waiting room carried out a number of silly tasks designed to entertain and amuse the participant.In the anger situation a stooge in a waiting room carried out tasks and made comments designed to annoy the participant.
12 Dutton and Aron (1974)Arranged for men to be interviewed by an attractive woman, whilst standing on either a high or a low suspension bridge. Men on the high bridge should have heightened physiological arousal due to the height but will mistake this for ‘sexual attraction’.The men on the high bridge demonstrated greater attraction than those on low bridge or when the interviewer was male, thus showing that the males on the high bridge needed to find a appropriate emotional label.Love is basically a state of physiological arousal that you label as ‘love’
14 Lazarus (1975)It’s not the events themselves that cause trauma, it’s the individual’s appraisal of the situation/eventA thought must come before any emotion or physiological arousal. In other words, you must first think about your situation before you can experience an emotion.When an event occurs, a cognitive appraisal is made (either consciously or subconsciously), and based on the result of that appraisal, an emotion and physiological response follow.
15 Cognitive Factors in Emotion Appraisal is a cognitive process: how we evaluate a situation and cope with itpositive emotions emerge if appraisal assesses potential benefit; negative emotions if appraisal assesses potential harm.Folkman & Lazarus (1988): people use different strategies in stressful situationsproblem-focused copingemotion-focused coping
16 Coping with stressful situations Problem focused coping: aiming to change the problematic situationEmotion focused coping: aims to handle the emotions rather than the situation
17 AppraisalPersonal characteristics influence how we perceive a situation, including:MotivationBelief about one’s self and the worldEnvironmental variablesNature of the dangerSocial networks
18 Study: Lazarus and Smith (1993) Use green text pg. 89 to write a summary of this study and how it relates to the appraisal theory of emotion
19 Speisman (1964)Investigated if people’s emotional reaction to an unpleasant film could be manipulated:Showed participants genital mutilation film with one of three soundtracks (conditions) to manipulate their appraisals: traumatic (emphasizing pain), willing participants (denial), and intellectualization (think National Geographic)Participants reacted more emotionally to the trauma condition.Suggests it is not the event themselves that elicit emotional stress, but the individual’s interpretation of that event.
20 SUMMARY OF THIS SLO – how you could organize an LAQ response: Explain what emotion is and the three componentsBriefly explain the physiology of emotion including Ledoux’s theory – two pathways- how is cortex and amygdala involved?Schachter and Singer Two-Factor Theory of Emotion (explain)Schachter and Singer (1962) also can use Dutton and Aron (1974)Lazarus’s Appraisal theory of EmotionLazarus & Smith (1993)Speisman et al. (1964)