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CHAPTER 12: Emotion Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin.

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Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 12: Emotion Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin."— Presentation transcript:

1 CHAPTER 12: Emotion Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin

2 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Emotion The Physiological Component The Expressive Component The Cognitive Component Human Emotion: Putting the Pieces Together

3 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Emotion Three Components of Emotion §Emotion r A feeling state characterized by physiological arousal, expressive behaviors, and a cognitive interpretation.

4 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall The Physiological Component A Historical Perspective James-Lange Theory of Emotion §Emotion arises from physiological arousal l Happiness comes from smiling l Sadness comes from crying

5 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall The Physiological Component A Historical Perspective Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion §Emotion originates in the thalamus §“Body” (physiological systems) and “Mind” (emotional experience) are independently activated at the same time

6 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall The Physiological Component Brain Centers of Emotion §Limbic System l The Amygdala is highly involved in fear responses §Cerebral Cortex l Left hemisphere associated with positive emotions; right with negative emotions

7 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall The Physiological Component Generalized Autonomic Arousal The Autonomic Nervous System “Fight or Flight” Restore Calm

8 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall The Physiological Component Specific Patterns of Arousal Polygraph Tests §Polygraph l Records multiple channels of autonomic arousal and is often used as a lie-detector test. §Scientific opinion is split regarding whether the polygraph works.

9 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall The Expressive Component Common Email “Emoticons”

10 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall The Expressive Component Nonverbal Communication How Well do People Identify Emotions?

11 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall The Expressive Component Nonverbal Communication The Facial EMG §Electrodes placed on the face record activity in various muscles. §Positive emotions increase activity in cheeks. §Negative emotions increase activity in forehead and brow areas. Electromyograph (EMG)

12 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall The Expressive Component Sensory Feedback §Facial-Feedback Hypothesis l The hypothesis that changes in facial expression can produce corresponding changes in emotion l Zajonc, et al. had subjects repeat vowel sounds. l Making some sounds - “ah” and “e” - caused smiling and elevated mood. l Making other sounds - “u” and “ü” - caused frowning and lowered mood.

13 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall The Cognitive Component Schachter’s Two-Factor Theory of Emotion §Physiological arousal l Sweaty palms l Increased heart rate l Rapid breathing §Cognitive Label l Attribute source of arousal to a cause. §To have an emotion, both factors are required.

14 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall The Cognitive Component Dimensions of Appraisal §Cognitive dimensions closely linked to emotion: l Pleasantness: Is event enjoyable? l Attention: Is one focused on event? l Agency: Does one believe he/she is in control? l Certainty: How clear is situation and is outcome predictable?

15 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall The Cognitive Component Counterfactual Thinking l Imagining alternative scenarios and outcomes that might have happened but did not l Wondering “What if…?” l More likely in response to negative events l More likely when one is close to the other outcome (e.g., a lottery ticket with 4/5 winning numbers, a silver medalist, etc.)

16 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall The Cognitive Component Is Cognition Necessary? Pathway of Fear Without “Thought” §Sensation of threat can reach the amygdala via direct path from thalamus l The fast “low road” §Sensation of threat also travels from the thalamus to the cortex l The slow “high road” §Cortical judgment can override direct path

17 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall The Cognitive Component Can People Predict Their Emotional States? §Affective Forecasting l The process by which people predict how they would feel in the future, after various positive and negative events l People have difficulty predicting their emotions in response to future events. l People overestimate the duration of their emotional reactions (durability bias).

18 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Human Emotion: Putting the Pieces Together Russell's Circumplex Model §Which emotions are universal, felt in all cultures? l Fear, anger, joy, disgust, surprise, and sadness §Russell identified two main dimensions of emotion §Emotions can be sorted according to these dimensions in several cultures

19 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Human Emotion: Putting the Pieces Together Dynamics of Emotion Opponent-Process Theory of Emotion §Every primary emotional state triggers its opposite, opponent state. §A positive emotional state is followed by a negative state, and vice versa. §Emotional experience is balanced over time.

20 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Human Emotion: Putting the Pieces Together Are There Gender Differences in Emotion? §Little support exists that the sexes differ in their actual feelings in response to similar events. §However, there are differences in the public display of emotion. l Women are more expressive than men are.

21 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Human Emotion: Putting the Pieces Together Are There Cultural Differences in Emotion? §Some aspects of emotion seem universal. §However, cultures affect the categorization of emotions and the display rules that govern when and where emotions can be expressed.

22 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Human Emotion: Putting the Pieces Together Pleasure and the Pursuit of Happiness §Three predictive indicators of happiness are: l Social relationships l Employment l Physical health

23 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Human Emotion: Putting the Pieces Together Pleasure and the Pursuit of Happiness National Happiness Ratings §The happiness scale : very happy (4), quite happy (3), not very happy (2), or not at all happy (1).

24 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Human Emotion: Putting the Pieces Together Pleasure and the Pursuit of Happiness National Wealth and Happiness §Over a 40-year period, Americans became over twice as wealthy, but no happier.

25 Psychology, 4/e by Saul Kassin ©2004 Prentice Hall Human Emotion: Putting the Pieces Together Pleasure and the Pursuit of Happiness §Social-Comparison Theory l The theory that people evaluate themselves by making comparisons with others §Adaptation-Level Theory l The theory that people evaluate experiences in relation to current levels to which they have become accustomed

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