Presentation on theme: "Learning is the modification through experience of pre-existing"— Presentation transcript:
1Learning is the modification through experience of pre-existing behavior and understanding.Chapter 6 “learning”
2Learning About stimuli Habituation is considered a simple form of adaptive learning.Organisms stop paying attention to stimuli that are often repeated and that don’t signal any important environmental events.
3Opponent Process Theory A-ProcessB-processThe A-Process is an almost reflexive increase or decrease in some response.The B-Process causes an opposite or opposing response.Opponent Process Theory
4Classical conditioning: learning signals and associations. Ivan Pavlov’s experiment was the first demonstration of classical conditioning.Pavlov’s experiment had three phases:Phase One: A natural reflex and a neutral stimulus were established.Phase Two: The neutral stimulus and the stimulus causing the natural reflex were repeatedly paired.Third Phase: The neutral stimulus alone caused some form of the natural reflex to occur.
5Classical Conditioning In classical conditioning, a neutral stimulus is paired with a stimulus that elicits a reflex or other response until the formerly neutral stimulus elicits a similar response.ElementsUCSUCRCSCR
6Conditioned response over time: extinction The CS will continue to elicit a CR only if the UCS continues to appear at least some of the time.If the CS and UCS are unpaired (that is, the CS is not followed by the UCS), the CR gets weaker and weaker and undergoes extinction.
7Spontaneous RecoveryHowever, the learned relationship between the CS and UCS isn’t completely forgotten.Reconditioning—the relationship between the CS and UCS is relearned as the stimuli are paired once again. This time the CS will elicit the CR much more rapidly.Spontaneous Recovery—occurs when, after no presentation of either the CS or the UCS for a period of time, a single presentation of the CS elicits the CR.
8Stimulus Generalization Stimulus generalization occurs when a stimulus similar but not identical to the original stimulus also elicits the response.
9Stimulus Discrimination Stimulus discrimination is a complementary process through which organism learn to differentiate between stimuli that are similar but not identical to the CS.
10Signaling of Significant Events In classical condition, the CS acts as a signal that the UCS is about to appear.Situations that highlight and strengthen the CS-UCS relationship will produce stronger CRs.
11TimingClassical Conditioning produces the strongest CRs when the CS precedes the UCS by no more than a few seconds.
12PredictabilityA strong CR will be developed if a very noticeable CS is reliably followed by the UCS.
13Signal StrengthThe relationship between the CS and the UCS is learned faster as the salience or intensity of the CS and UCS increases.
14AttentionOften more than one CS is associated with a UCS. The Cs that is most attended to will be the best predictor of the UCS.
15Second-Order Conditioning Second-Order Conditioning, occurs when a second conditioned stimulus predicts the presence of the first conditioned stimulus, which predicts the presence of the UCS.
16BiopreparednessHumans and animals may be innately likely or biologically “prepared” to learn certain adaptive associations.Nausea is likely to be a conditioned response to an internal stimulus such as taste (conditioned taste aversion), and pain is likely to be a conditioned response to an external stimulus such as noise.
17Some Applications of Classical Conditioning: Learned Immune Responses. Immune responses can be classically conditioned by pairing a neutral stimulus (CS) with a drug (UCS) that, for example, prevents or reduces an allergy attack or increases circulating natural killer cells.After conditioning, the CS alone will elicit a conditioned immune response.
18PhobiasPhobias are fears of objects or situations that are not harmful. Classical conditioning can both produce (via stimulus generalization) and eliminate (through systematic desensitization) phobias.
19Predator ControlSome Ranchers have set out mutton laced with lithium for wolves and coyotes.The dizziness and severe nausea (UCR) caused by the lithium becomes associated with the taste and smell of mutton (CS) thus making sheep an undesirable meal.
20Operant Conditioning: Learning the consequences of behavior People learn more than just an association between neutral and unconditioned stimuli.For many behaviors, the stimuli that follow an action are important.In other words, people learn to respond in a way that brings about positive consequences.
21From the Puzzle box to the skinner box. According to the law of effects, if a response made in the presence of a particular stimulus is followed by a reward, that response is more likely to be made the next time the stimulus is encountered.
22InstrumentalResponses that are “instrumental” meaning they help produce some rewarding or desired effect, are learned; therefore, Thorndike called this learning instrumental conditioning.Skinner’s emphasis on how an organism learns to “operate on” its environment to produce a positive effect led him to rename instrumental conditioning to operant conditioning.
23Basic components of Operant conditioning Operants and Reinforcers.Escape and Avoidance ConditioningPunishmentDiscriminative StimuliStimulus Control
24Operants and Reinforcers: An operant is a behavioral response that has some effect on an organism’s environment.In operant conditioning people learn the relationship between the operants and their consequences.A reinforcer is a consequence that increases the probability that a behavioral response will occur again.
25Two Types of Reinforcers Positive Reinforcers—are positive stimuli that act like rewards.Negative Reinforcers—are negative stimuli that, once removed, encourage or reinforce behavior.
26Escape ConditioningNegative reinforcements are used in escape conditioning.In escape conditioning, an organism learns behaviors that lead to an escape from an unpleasant situation (negative reinforcement)
27Avoidance conditioning Negative reinforcements are used in avoidance conditioning.In avoidance conditioning, an organism learns behaviors that allow it to completely avoid an unpleasant situation.Avoidance conditioning is very strong and may prevent an organism from learning new behaviors.
28PunishmentPunishment presents an aversive stimulus or removes a pleasant stimulus to decrease the frequency of a behavior.
29Disadvantages to Punishment It does not eliminate learning: it merely suppresses a behavior.If an organism knows that punishment is not likely, then the behavior is repeatedIt is not effective unless it immediately follows the undesired behavior.May be associated with the punisher so that eventually the punisher is feared.Organisms being punished may learn to relate to others in an aggressive manner.Makes clear what behaviors are incorrect, but it does not provided any demonstration of desired behavior.
30Punishment can work if used wisely One should punish the behavior not the person.Punish immediatelyUse severe enough punishment to eliminate the behavior.Explain and reinforce more appropriate behaviors.
31Discriminative stimuli Discriminative Stimuli signal to an organism that reinforcement is available if a certain response is made.This response is said to be under stimulus control.
32Stimulus Generalization Recognizing a stimulus that is similar to the original stimulus that signaled reinforcement.
33Forming and strengthening operant behavior ShapingSecondary ReinforcementDelay and Size of ReinforcementSchedules of ReinforcementSchedules and Extinction
34ShapingShaping is the creation of new responses never before displayed.Reinforcing successive approximations (behaviors more and more like the desired response) of the desired behavior.
35Secondary Reinforcement Often, operant conditioning will begin with primary reinforcers—events or stimuli that are intrinsically rewarding…food.A secondary reinforcer is a previously neutral stimulus that , if paired with a stimulus that is already reinforcing, will itself take on reinforcing properties….token economy.
36Delay and size of Reinforcement Operant condition is strongest when the delay in receiving a reinforcer is short, and when the reinforcer is large.
37Schedules of Reinforcement On a continuous reinforcement schedule, every correct response receives a reward.On partial, or intermittent reinforcement schedules, reinforcement is received only some of the time.
38Fixed Ratio (FR) Schedules A reward is given after a fixed number of responses.
39Variable Ratio Schedule A reward is given after an average number of responses.
40Fixed Interval Schedule Rewards the first response displayed after a fixed time interval.
41Variable Interval Schedule Rewards the first response after a varying time interval.
42Schedules and extinction Eliminating reinforcers for behavioral responses eventually causes the behavioral response to cease.Partial reinforcement extinction effect demonstrates that it is more difficult to extinguish an operant behavior learned under a partial rather than a continuous reinforcement schedule.
43Why Reinforcers work?Primary reinforcers are items that fulfill basic needs or are inherently rewarding experiences, such as relief from pain.
44The Premack PrincipleThe Premack Principle asserts that each person has a hierarchy of behvioral preferences, and that the higher an activity is in that hierarchy, the greater its reinforcement power.
45Disequalibrium hypothesis Contends that any activity can become a reinforcer if access to it has been restricted for a time.
46Biological explanation Biological psychologists have found that stimulation of “pleasure centers” in the brain is a powerful reinforcer, suggesting a physiological component to reinforcement.
47Operant Conditioning of Human Behavior Operant conditioning can be used to teach people the “rules” of social behavior and to eliminate problematic behavior and reinforce positive, desired behavior in people afflicted with mental retardation, autism, and other behavior disorders.Operant conditioning principles can also be used to help people understand the stimuli that trigger behaviors they want to eliminate (smoking or overeating).Understanding and avoiding discriminative stimuli can reduce undesired behavior.
48Cognitive Process in Learning Cognitive processes, such as how people store, represent and use information, can influence learning.
49Learned HelplessnessHumans and animals placed in situations that eliminate their control over the environment tend to give up any effort to exert control over their environment in a new situation.They learn to be helpless
50Latent LearningLearning that is not immediately evident in an organism’s behavior is known as latent learning.
51Cognitive MapsCognitive maps are mental representations of the environment.
52Insight and LearningThe cognitive process of insight involves understanding the global organization of a problem.
53Observational Learning: Learning by Imitation A series of experiments by Bandura demonstrated that people learn by watching others, which is termed observational learning.
54Vicarious Conditioning In vicarious conditioning, a type of observational learning, a person learns new behaviors by observing the consequences (reinforcement or punishment) of someone else’s behavior.
55Using Research on Learning to Help people learn Classrooms Across CulturesStudies show that the average academic performance of U.S. students tends to lag behind that of students in other countries.Suggested causes include static classroom formats, and less time spent on practice.VS
56Teaching MachinesB.F. Skinner’s machine gave students immediate feedback on their answers to questions about course material presented in a window.Today interactive computer programs work on the same principle.
57Active learningActive learning exercises improve memory of materials and make classrooms more enjoyable.Active learning is a more elaborate processing in which students solve problems in groups, think about how material relates to what they know, and answer every question asked by the teacher.
58Skill learningPractice is the most critical component of skill learning.How much effort is put into practicing the skill, by working on a variety of difficult problems or movements, will be a critical factor in performance.Coaching is helpful in limited doses; the learner should be encouraged to try independent practice in addition to coaching.
59Skill learningFeedback let the learner know if she or he is correct and may provide understanding of the cognitive and physical processes used in the skill.Feedback should be given after a learner is done practicing and should not be so detailed that the learner doesn’t have to learn from his or her own mistakes.