Presentation on theme: "Picard. Lactation Produces milk in the mammary glands allowing the mother to provide sustenance to offspring as they develop outside of the womb. Endothermic."— Presentation transcript:
Lactation Produces milk in the mammary glands allowing the mother to provide sustenance to offspring as they develop outside of the womb. Endothermic An organism that generates heat to maintain its body temperature, typically above the temperature of its surroundings; warm-blooded. Hair Acts as an insulation and protection against temperature and weather.
Make up the most diverse group of mammals Often considered to be pests Large numbers Destructive gnawing habits of some species Important food source for other animals
4 Large incisor teeth in the front of the mouth Teeth do not stop growing and must gnaw on wood or other materials to keep teeth worn down
Primary Consumers: Herbivores Serve as a dietary staple for secondary consumers Hawks Owls Skunks Fox Coyotes Bobcats Lynx Mink Weasels Shrews Snakes Small Reptiles Bears Smallest of the rodents: Mice
Vole: small rodent with a stout body and short tail Most common voles in North America are meadow vole, field mouse, muskrat. Often confused with a mouse or rat Difference: Blunt face Small eyes Large ears Hairy tail
Divided into two groups: Tree Squirrels Spend their times in trees Live in forested areas Depend on trees for food and shelter Excellent climbers Make nests in trees Smaller litters of young than ground squirrels Occasionally multiple liters per year Store food during the summer and are active during the winter. Ground Squirrels Live in burrows in the ground Will eat carcasses of road kill Large litters in spring Pray to many different animals Hibernate during winter months Depend on fat reserves for nutrition Primary consumers Plant material Bird eggs Young birds
Live in flatlands, prairies, rolling hills and high alpine meadows. Burrowing animals- build underground dens lined with dry grass Herbivores Hibernate during winter
Communicate- warn of danger and challenge rivals with a shrill whistle Bits off green vegetation, lets it dry in the sun and then uses it as beding materials and emergency supply of food. Live in areas where water is limited and are able to obtain enough water from plants. Click
Similar behavior to marmots Five species of prairie dogs in North America Tail is covered with hair Active during the day Diet: grasses, vegetation insects (grasshoppers) Store food during summer for winter supplies
Sharp quills used to defend itself against its enemies. It cannot throw its quills Quills can be imbedded into the flesh of other animals Predators avoid quills by flipping the animal over and attack the unprotected throat and belly Cause damage to trees and shrubs due to gnawing the buds and bark for food Attracted to salt
Pocket Gophers spend their lives alone in underground tunnels Eat roots of plants During the night they gather grasses and other plants that are eaten or carried for storage Carry food in cheek pouches in mouth Come out of tunnels to find a mate Mounds near entrance of tunnels resulting on excavated dirt.
Largest rodent found in North America Lives in tunnels constructed in the banks of streams or inside lodges constructed in ponds Feeds on bark of willows and other trees Constructs dams from trees it cuts down Their construction can create water blockages that create ponds.
Not rodents, but still are gnawing mammals Once were classified as rodents because of their large incisors, but it was discovered that they had another set of incisors behind their first pair. Occupy most of the North American ecosystems Evergreen/hardwood forests Plains Deserts Tundra Marshes
Hares have longer hind legs and longer, wider ears than rabbits. Hares: Offspring born with a full coat of fur and eyes open at birth. Rabbits: born without hair and eyes are closed for several days Pikas: Short legs, ears and no visible tail.
Make grass nests for their young and line them with fur pulled from the females sides and belly Some build nests in underground holes or in depressions in the ground Young rabbits open their eyes by 2 weeks and are helpless for about a month
Fast, more mobile than rabbits Live in wide open spaces Acute hearing
1. What 3 characteristics make an animal a mammal? 2. What order are rabbits in? 3. List 5 animals that consume rodents. 4. Why are rodents considered to be pests? 5. Which group of squirrels hibernate? 6. Describe the damage porcupines do to trees. 7. What are 2 other names for woodchuck? 8. Which rodent construction creates small ponds? 9. Do rabbits have hair when born? 10. What is the one species of hare found in CT?
1. What 3 characteristics make an animal a mammal? Lactation, Hair, Endothermic 2. What order are rabbits in? Lagomorpha 3. List 5 animals that consume rodents. 4. Why are rodents considered to be pests? Chew wires, crops and spread diseases 5. Which group of squirrels hibernate? Ground 6. Describe the damage porcupines do to trees. Girdle the tree 7. What are 2 other names for woodchuck? Groundhog, Marmot, Whistling Pig 8. Which rodent construction creates small ponds? Beavers Dams 9. Do rabbits have hair when born? No, not until 1 month 10. What is the one species of hare found in CT? Snow Shoe Hare Hawks Owls Skunks Fox Coyotes Bobcats Lynx Mink Weasels Shrews Snakes Small Reptiles Bears
Over 260 species in the world "Carnivora" comes from the Latin words carō, meaning "flesh," and vorāre, meaning "to devour," and thus means "to devour flesh." Carnivores in general get most of their food by killing and eating other animals. Many are omnivores and get a large part of their nutrition from plant foods.
Large canines and carnassials Molars are blade-like and more suited for cutting than grinding Can not move their lower jaws from side to side but can only open and close their mouths.
Aquatic pinnipeds have both front and hind limbs in the form of flippers Carnivores walk on all four legs Some walk on their toes Some walk on the flat of the feet
Covered with thick fur. Almost all carnivores have tails Used in various ways by different species. Some species have a prehensile tail Prehensile: adapted for seizing, grasping, or taking hold of something A bearcat is a mammal from Malaysia, also called a binturong. Bearcats have prehensile tails.
Most carnivores bear young once a year From 1-16 young Young are born small and helpless and are looked after for a fairly long time by their mothers. In most cases, this includes time for learning hunting and other life skills.
All carnivores have scent glands in their anal regions. The secretions from these are often used to mark territories. In skunks and some others, they are used as a defensive weapon
Feliformia (cat-like) About 41 species Hunted and trapped Sport Fur Many species endangered due to habitat loss and unregulated hunting Diet is mostly meat Walk on four feet, in a digitigrade manner Digitigrade: on their toes
Claws on their feet that are used for: Gripping prey Fighting Climbing Claws can be retracted into the toes, which helps keep them sharp, in all cats except: Cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus) Fishing cat (Prionailurus viverrinus) Flat-headed cat (Prionailurus planiceps)
Bodies are covered with fur Most cats have a long fur-covered tail Tail is used for: balance in running and leaping Sometimes for warmth Cats have very keen senses, especially their vision. Their eyes are large and are well suited for seeing in low levels of light. Most cats hunt at night or in the late evening and early morning. They can not see in total darkness.
Cats live most of their lives alone Exception: Lions Male and female cats come together to mate Most species -once a year. The young are born in litters of one to six. Young are cared for by their mother for several months Until they are mature and experienced enough to live on their own.
Caniformia (dog-like) Often are viewed as a threat to domestic animals or people Hunted, trapped, and poisoned. Fur Sport
Excellent sense: Smell Hearing Diet Mainly meat Scavengers Some eat plant matter in addition to diet Digitigrade Claws are blunt and used for traction. Social –live in groups
Most give birth once a year 1-16 young Young are helpless and need parental care for about a year Kept in den’s for warmth and protection Parents bring solid foods back to the den after they are weaned before they are ready to hunt.
6 genera and 18 species Small to medium-sized Long to moderately long tails with dark rings Obvious facial markings Non-retractable claws Omnivorous diet Most active during the evening and early night; crepuscular to nocturnal
Plantigrade or semi-plantigrade Extremely agile Tree climbing Dexterous hands Excellent swimmers
Coati Nasau narica Ranges from extreme southern Arizona, New Mexico and Texas
1. What does the word carnivora translate to in Latin? 2. Describe how carnivores chew. 3. Define prehensile. 4. List 3 reasons carnivores have scent glands. 5. List one animal in the felidae family that does not have the ability to retract its claws. 6. Define extirpated. 7. What family is the swift fox in? 8. Which animal is in the ursidae family? 9. What family were pandas in before they were classified? 10. Are raccoons claws retractable?
1. What does the word carnivora translate to in Latin? Caro= flesh Vorare= to devour 2. Describe how carnivores chew. Up and down 3. Define prehensile. Adapted for seizing and grasping 4. List 3 reasons carnivores have scent glands. Territory Defense Attract mates 5. List one animal in the felidae family that does not have the ability to retract its claws. Cheetah Fishing cat Flat-headed cat 6. Define extirpated. Removed from the area 7. What family is the swift fox in? Canidae 8. Which animal is in the ursidae family? Bears 9. What family were pandas in before they were classified? Proyonidae 10. Are raccoons claws retractable? No
55 species Long thin bodies Spend most of their time hunting for food Agile climbers Otters: aquatic Diet: rodents, fish, birds, earthworms, roots, plants, invertebrates, carrion
16 species have delayed implantation: Following fertilization, the embryo does not implant in the uterus wall until certain external environmental conditions are met. This delay can last up to ten months and often only occurs through the winter period. It occurs in solitary Mustelids, which only tolerate the opposite gender for a relatively short mating period.
14 species in 7 genera Polygamous Small external ear flaps Light skin Dense double layer of fur with short underfur and longer guard hairs Partially hairless fore- and hindflippers Swim with their large foreflippers and can rotate their hindflippers forward to walk and climb on all fours on land
Family: Didelphidae- New World Opossums Marsupium or pouch that develops on the abdomen of females Omnivorous or carnivorous Arboreal; one is aquatic and has fully webbed hind feet Nocturnal More than 60 species Long, naked tail A long Pointed snout Opposable thumbs in the hands and feet Ears that are naked
Family: soricidae- shrews Family: tilpidae- moles Shrews, moles, hedgehogs 4 families,442 species Small to medium sized Plantigrade Long pointed snouts Sharp teeth Pinnae and eyes are usually small to absent
300 species in 23 genera Small Eyes are tiny Main senses: touch, hearing, and smell Some species are believed to use echolocation High metabolic rate Active throughout the day and night Feed primarily on invertebrates Some shrews are poisonous
Longtail shrew Sorex dispar Northern water shrew Sorex palustris
Least shrew Cryptotis parva Shorttail shrew Blarina brevicauda
42 species North America and Eurasia Active at day and night High metabolic rate Diet Invertebrates Some eat plants Around 2/3 of the members of this family are at least partially fossorial Digging underground tunnels in which they live Tiny eyes Short legs No external ears Short limbs, designed for digging with long claws Velvet soft fur
Family: Vespertilionidae- Common bats 318 species Evening bats Small eyes No noseleaf Ears Long tails
Some species roost in large colonies, others are solitary or live in small groups or pairs. Males and females tend to roost apart most of the year, and some species have maternity colonies. Live in caves, but these bats can also be found in mine shafts, tunnels, tree roosts, rock crevices, buildings, etc. Some species contaminate human habitations with feces and noise, but this annoyance is more than offset by the bats' consumption of huge quantities of insects.
Big Brown Bat Eptesicus fuscus Hoary Bat Lasiurus cinereus
Include the largest animal that has ever lived, the blue whale Cetaceans live, breed, rest, and carry out all of their life functions in the water. They evolved from terrestrial animals to an entirely aquatic life form that is completely separated from the land
Common Dolphin Delphinus delphis Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphin Tursiops truncatus