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The Professional Teacher Chapter 5. Effective instruction Student motivation as influenced by teacher behavior Student motivation as influenced by student.

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Presentation on theme: "The Professional Teacher Chapter 5. Effective instruction Student motivation as influenced by teacher behavior Student motivation as influenced by student."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Professional Teacher Chapter 5

2 Effective instruction Student motivation as influenced by teacher behavior Student motivation as influenced by student cognition

3 Instruction: Can be presented systematically Practiced for student performance Evaluated for quality Corrective feedback

4 Research findings on effective teaching Researchers observed classroom teachers who were effective or ineffective Experimental studies were conducted that used effective teaching behaviors

5 Lesson design Lesson introduction Clear explanations of the content Checks for student understanding Period of coached practice Lesson summary or closure Period of solitary practice Periodic reviews

6 Lesson introduction Make students aware of what they are supposed to learn Activates prior knowledge Focuses attention on main elements Motivates them to be interested in the lesson Actively involves them

7 Clarity Step-by-step fashion using concrete examples familiar to the students Questions that monitor student understanding Using elaboration (inferential questions, reflection) Advance organizers (Ausubel, 1960) or statements of objectives Outlining content, calling attention to main ideas, summarizing main ideas Visual representations Involving students in summarizing and notetaking, asking, cooperative learning


9 Inferential Questions (Marzano, 2007) Things and People: What action does this thing usually perform? What action is usually performed on this thing? How is this thing usually used? What is this thing part of? What is the process for making this thing? What particular taste, feel, smell or sound does this thing have? What particular color, number (or quantity), location, or dimensionality does this thing have? How is this thing usually sold? What particular emotional state does this person have? Does this thing have a particular value? When this thing is used, does it present a particular danger to other things or to people? What is it? Actions: What thing or person usually performs this action? What effect does this action have on the taste, feel, sound, or look of this thing? How does this action typically change the emotional state of a person? How is the value of a thing changed by this action? How does this action change the size or shape of a thing? How does this action change the state of a thing? Events: What people are usually involved in this event? During what season or time of year does this event usually take place? On what day of the week does this event usually take place? At what time of the day does this event usually take place? Where does this event usually take place? At what point in history did this event take place? What equipment is typically used in this event? How long does this event usually take? States: What is the basic process involved in reaching this state? What changes occur when something reaches this state?


11 Checking for understanding Effective teachers ask specific questions Engage students in focused activities (a writing task) Evaluate need to re-teach the material

12 Coached practice Written exercises Oral questions Group work Mastery (75% or higher) Scaffolding

13 Closure Asks students to summarize ideas Exit slip – student supplies specific info in writing.

14 Solitary practice Weekly and monthly (reinforcement) Review Independent work for success Homework (checked and given feedback to students by teacher)

15 Motivation involves the processes that energize, direct, and sustain behavior.

16 Student interest Relating subject content to life outside school Self determination Games, videos, group work

17 Student needs Maslow Cooperative group work (need for belonging and acceptance) Short attention spans Novelty and variety

18 The popcorn popper As Mr. Smith’s students walk into 10 th grade creative writing class, they hear an unusual noise. On the teacher’s desk an electric popcorn popper filled with unpopped kernels is running. Soon the room is filled with the aroma of fresh popcorn. When the popcorn is finished, the teacher passes a bowl of popcorn around for everyone to eat. After the students finished eating, Mr. Smith asked them to describe out loud the sights, sounds, smells, tastes and feel of the popcorn. Mr. Smith then uses their accounts as an introduction to a writing exercise on the five senses.

19 Success Learned Helplessness (Seligman)

20 Locus: is the cause internal or external. Stability: does the cause remain the same or change? Controllability: can the individual control the cause? Attribution Theory Bernard Weiner (1935- Present) our perceived underlying cause of behavior

21 Attribution Theory

22 James believes he did well on a test because he was lucky. Weiner’s Attribution Theory Theory into Practice Q.1: Describe James’ attribution along Weiner’s dimensions. Steve believes he did poorly on a test because he is stupid. Q.2: Describe Steve's attribution along Weiner’s dimensions

23 Sally believes she did poorly on a test because she didn’t study enough for this test. Weiner’s Attribution Theory Theory into Practice Q.3: Describe Sally’s attribution along Weiner’s dimensions. Sandra believes she did poorly in a class because the teacher doesn’t like her. Q.4: Describe Sandra's attribution along Weiner’s dimensions

24 Optimal Experiences & Flow Flow occurs: When students develop a sense of mastery When students are challenged and perceive that they have a high degree of skill.

25 Helpless Orientation Students focus on their personal inadequacies Performance Orientation Students are concerned with the outcome rather than the process Mastery Orientation Students focus on the task rather than their ability Generate solution-oriented strategies Achievement Goal Orientation 13.25

26 Tension A moderate amount of tension results in motivation without tension overload Teachers move around the room, call on students, quizzes, checking homework, checking homework

27 Feeling tone Emotional atmosphere in the classroom Madeline Hunter (1982) Extremely positive Extremely negative

28 Assessment and feedback KWL (know, want to know, learned) Standardized tests Curriculum-based Assessment Identifying strengths and weaknesses Self-monitoring skills Self-assessment Self-reinforcement Guidance for improvement


30 Encouragement Self-efficacy (Bandura)

31 Teacher expectations Teaches unintentionally communicate low expectations toward students whom they perceive as low achievers.

32 Teacher expectations Calling on low achievers less often to answer questions Giving low achievers less think time when they are called on Provide fewer clues and hints to low achievers Praise correct answers from low achievers less often Criticize wrong answers more often Demand more precise answers from high achievers Stay farther away physically and psychologically from low achievers Really express personal interest in low achievers Smile less frequently at low achievers Make less frequent eye contact Complement low achievers less often.

33 Motivation & Gender higher competence beliefs in math and sports more rambunctious Receive more teacher attention, yet receive lower grades List more career options higher competence beliefs for English, reading, and social activities experience conflicts between gender roles and achievement Are more compliant, get less teacher attention FemalesMales

34 Classroom questioning Bloom’s Taxonomy


36 Create supersedes evaluate as the pinnacle of learning creation supersedes evaluation as the pinnacle of learning.


38 Classroom questioning Call on students in a random rather than predictable order (except for first and second grade) After asking a question, allow students some time to answer Have many students respond to a question before giving feedback Give specific positive reinforcement as feedback Ask follow-up or probing questions (collaboration, specifics examples)

39 Beyond the Basics Students’ misconceptions entering the classroom persist a)Warmer in summer b)Photosynthesis c)gravity

40 Today More emphasis on constuctivism a)Knowledge is actively constructed b)Prior knowledge influences new learning c)Knowledge is socially constructed d)Teacher is a facilitator e)Authentic instruction f)Multiple types of intelligence g)Differentiating instruction h)Self-regulation

41 Authentic instruction Newman and Wehlage (1993) Teacher is active early on, modeling appropriate problem-solving skills, providing cues and information, and structuring the learning process 1)higher order thinking versus lower order – students are asked to manipulate, transform, and use information in new and unpracticed ways 2)Depth of coverage-students encounter a small number of ideas but develop a deeper level of understanding

42 Authentic instruction Newman and Wehlage (1993) 3) Teachers present real-world problems as topics of study to apply their knowledge outside the classroom 4) Substantive conversation – dialogue and argumentation back and forth 5) Push for achievement – all students are learners; mutual respect and intellectual risk- taking.

43 Teachers and Peers as Joint Contributors to Students’ Learning Scaffolding: Changing the level of support over the course of a teaching session Cognitive Apprenticeship: An expert stretches and supports the novice’s understanding and use of cultural skills Tutoring: Includes classroom aides, volunteers, and mentors Cooperative Learning: Students work in small groups to help each other © 2006 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Santrock, Educational Psychology, Second Edition, Classroom Update

44 Cooperative Learning

45 Classroom learning community Cooperative learning (Slavin) 1)Face to face interaction 2)Positive interdependence a) positive reward interdependence b) positive resource interdependence 1)Individual accountability

46 Structuring Small Group Work Composing the Group - Heterogeneous groups work. Caution should be used so that average-ability students don’t get lost as high-and low-ability students form student-teacher like relationships. Team-Building Skills - Help students become better listeners. Structuring Group Interaction – Assigning students to specific roles within the group gives all members a sense of importance.

47 Roles in Cooperative groups Encourager Gatekeeper Coach Checker Taskmaster Recorder Quiet captain Materials monitor

48 Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences Logical-Mathematical Linguistic Musical Spatial Bodily-Kinesthetic Interpersonal Intrapersonal Naturalistic Existential

49 existential

50 Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences existential

51 Differentiated Instruction Students differ: Readiness to learn Prior knowledge Motivation Thinking ability Learning style

52 Differentiated Instruction Tomlinson (2003) – “a systematic approach to planning curriculum and instruction for academically diverse learners.” Small, flexible instructional groups Students proceed at different paces Learner-centered Knowledgeable teacher (knows material and the essential elements that need to be taught)

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