2 Effective instruction Student motivation as influenced by teacher behaviorStudent motivation as influenced by student cognition
3 Instruction:Can be presented systematicallyPracticed for student performanceEvaluated for qualityCorrective feedback
4 Research findings on effective teaching Researchers observed classroom teachers who were effective or ineffectiveExperimental studies were conducted that used effective teaching behaviors
5 Lesson design Lesson introduction Clear explanations of the content Checks for student understandingPeriod of coached practiceLesson summary or closurePeriod of solitary practicePeriodic reviews
6 Lesson introductionMake students aware of what they are supposed to learnActivates prior knowledgeFocuses attention on main elementsMotivates them to be interested in the lessonActively involves them
7 ClarityStep-by-step fashion using concrete examples familiar to the studentsQuestions that monitor student understandingUsing elaboration (inferential questions, reflection)Advance organizers (Ausubel, 1960) or statements of objectivesOutlining content, calling attention to main ideas, summarizing main ideasVisual representationsInvolving students in summarizing and notetaking, asking, cooperative learning
9 Inferential Questions (Marzano, 2007) Things and People:What action does this thing usually perform?What action is usually performed on this thing?How is this thing usually used?What is this thing part of?What is the process for making this thing?What particular taste, feel, smell or sound does this thing have?What particular color, number (or quantity), location, or dimensionality does this thing have?How is this thing usually sold?What particular emotional state does this person have?Does this thing have a particular value?When this thing is used, does it present a particular danger to other things or to people? What is it?Actions:What thing or person usually performs this action?What effect does this action have on the taste, feel, sound, or look of this thing?How does this action typically change the emotional state of a person?How is the value of a thing changed by this action?How does this action change the size or shape of a thing?How does this action change the state of a thing?Events:What people are usually involved in this event?During what season or time of year does this event usually take place?On what day of the week does this event usually take place?At what time of the day does this event usually take place?Where does this event usually take place?At what point in history did this event take place?What equipment is typically used in this event?How long does this event usually take?States:What is the basic process involved in reaching this state?What changes occur when something reaches this state?
11 Checking for understanding Effective teachers ask specific questionsEngage students in focused activities (a writing task)Evaluate need to re-teach the material
12 Coached practice Written exercises Oral questions Group work Mastery (75% or higher)Scaffolding
13 Closure Asks students to summarize ideas Exit slip – student supplies specific info in writing.
14 Solitary practice Review Independent work for success Homework (checked and given feedback to students by teacher)ReviewWeekly and monthly (reinforcement)
15 Motivationinvolves the processes that energize, direct, and sustain behavior.
16 Student interest Relating subject content to life outside school Self determinationGames, videos, group work
17 Student needs Novelty and variety Maslow Cooperative group work (need for belonging and acceptance)Short attention spansNovelty and variety
18 The popcorn popperAs Mr. Smith’s students walk into 10th grade creative writing class, they hear an unusual noise. On the teacher’s desk an electric popcorn popper filled with unpopped kernels is running. Soon the room is filled with the aroma of fresh popcorn. When the popcorn is finished, the teacher passes a bowl of popcorn around for everyone to eat. After the students finished eating, Mr. Smith asked them to describe out loud the sights, sounds, smells, tastes and feel of the popcorn. Mr. Smith then uses their accounts as an introduction to a writing exercise on the five senses.
20 Attribution Theory our perceived underlying cause of behavior Bernard Weiner(1935- Present)Attribution Theoryour perceived underlying cause of behaviorLocus: is the cause internal or external.Stability: does the cause remain the same or change?Controllability: can the individual control the cause?13.20
22 Weiner’s Attribution Theory Theory into Practice James believes he did well on a test because he was lucky.Q.1: Describe James’ attribution along Weiner’s dimensions.Steve believes he did poorly on a test because he is stupid.Q.2: Describe Steve's attribution along Weiner’s dimensions.13.22
23 Weiner’s Attribution Theory Theory into Practice Sally believes she did poorly on a test because she didn’t study enough for this test.Q.3: Describe Sally’s attribution along Weiner’s dimensions.Sandra believes she did poorly in a class because the teacher doesn’t like her.Q.4: Describe Sandra's attribution along Weiner’s dimensions.13.23
24 Optimal Experiences & Flow Flow occurs:When students develop a sense of masteryWhen students are challenged and perceive that they have a high degree of skill.13.24
25 Achievement Goal Orientation Mastery OrientationStudents focus on the task rather than their abilityGenerate solution-oriented strategiesHelpless OrientationStudents focus on their personal inadequaciesPerformance OrientationStudents are concerned with the outcome rather than the process13.25
26 TensionA moderate amount of tension results in motivation without tension overloadTeachers move around the room, call on students, quizzes, checking homework, checking homework
27 Feeling tone Emotional atmosphere in the classroom Madeline Hunter (1982)Extremely positiveExtremely negative
28 Assessment and feedback KWL (know, want to know, learned)Standardized testsCurriculum-based AssessmentIdentifying strengths and weaknessesSelf-monitoring skillsSelf-assessmentSelf-reinforcementGuidance for improvement
31 Teacher expectationsTeaches unintentionally communicate low expectations toward students whom they perceive as low achievers.
32 Teacher expectationsCalling on low achievers less often to answer questionsGiving low achievers less think time when they are called onProvide fewer clues and hints to low achieversPraise correct answers from low achievers less oftenCriticize wrong answers more oftenDemand more precise answers from high achieversStay farther away physically and psychologically from low achieversReally express personal interest in low achieversSmile less frequently at low achieversMake less frequent eye contactComplement low achievers less often.
33 Motivation & Gender higher competence beliefs in math and sports MalesFemaleshigher competence beliefs in math and sportsmore rambunctiousReceive more teacher attention, yet receive lower gradesList more career optionshigher competence beliefs for English, reading, and social activitiesexperience conflicts between gender roles and achievementAre more compliant, get less teacher attention13.33
36 Create supersedes evaluate as the pinnacle of learning creation supersedes evaluation as the pinnacle of learning. creation supersedes evaluation as the pinnacle of learning. Create supersedes evaluate as the pinnacle of learning
38 Classroom questioning Call on students in a random rather than predictable order (except for first and second grade)After asking a question, allow students some time to answerHave many students respond to a question before giving feedbackGive specific positive reinforcement as feedbackAsk follow-up or probing questions (collaboration, specifics examples)
39 Beyond the BasicsStudents’ misconceptions entering the classroom persistWarmer in summerPhotosynthesisgravity
40 Today More emphasis on constuctivism Knowledge is actively constructed Prior knowledge influences new learningKnowledge is socially constructedTeacher is a facilitatorAuthentic instructionMultiple types of intelligenceDifferentiating instructionSelf-regulation
41 Authentic instruction Newman and Wehlage (1993)Teacher is active early on, modeling appropriate problem-solving skills, providing cues and information, and structuring the learning processhigher order thinking versus lower order – students are asked to manipulate, transform, and use information in new and unpracticed waysDepth of coverage-students encounter a small number of ideas but develop a deeper level of understanding
42 Authentic instruction Newman and Wehlage (1993)3) Teachers present real-world problems as topics of study to apply their knowledge outside the classroom4) Substantive conversation – dialogue and argumentation back and forth5) Push for achievement – all students are learners; mutual respect and intellectual risk-taking.
45 Classroom learning community Cooperative learning (Slavin)Face to face interactionPositive interdependencea) positive reward interdependenceb) positive resource interdependenceIndividual accountability
46 Structuring Small Group Work Composing the Group - Heterogeneous groups work. Caution should be used so that average-ability students don’t get lost as high-and low-ability students form student-teacher like relationships.Team-Building Skills - Help students become better listeners.Structuring Group Interaction –Assigning students to specific roleswithin the group gives all membersa sense of importance.
47 Roles in Cooperative groups EncouragerGatekeeperCoachCheckerTaskmasterRecorderQuiet captainMaterials monitor
48 Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences Logical-MathematicalLinguisticMusicalSpatialBodily-KinestheticInterpersonalIntrapersonalNaturalisticExistentialGardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences
51 Differentiated Instruction Students differ:Readiness to learnPrior knowledgeMotivationThinking abilityLearning style
52 Differentiated Instruction Tomlinson (2003) – “a systematic approach to planning curriculum and instruction for academically diverse learners.”Small, flexible instructional groupsStudents proceed at different pacesLearner-centeredKnowledgeable teacher (knows material and the essential elements that need to be taught)