Presentation on theme: "by John W. Santrock Adolescence University of Texas at Dallas"— Presentation transcript:
1by John W. Santrock Adolescence University of Texas at Dallas Thirteenth EditionAdolescenceby John W. SantrockUniversity of Texas at DallasPowerPoint slides prepared by Leonard R. Mendola, PhDTouro College
2Chapter 11: Achievement, Work, and Careers Outline The Importance of Achievement in AdolescenceAchievement ProcessesSocial Relationships and ContextsSome Obstacles to AchievementWORKWork in AdolescenceWorking While Going to CollegeWork/Career-Based LearningWork in Emerging Adulthood
3Chapter 11: Achievement, Work, and Careers Outline CAREER DEVELOPMENTDevelopmental ChangesPersonality StylesCognitive FactorsIdentity DevelopmentSocial Contexts
4AchievementAs adolescence and emerging adulthood unfold, achievement takes a more central role in development, work becomes a major aspect of life, and careers play an increasing role.
5Achievement The Importance of Achievement in Adolescence Adolescence is a critical juncture in achievement (Eccles & Roeser, 2009; Reksten, 2009).Achievement becomes a more serious business.How effectively adolescents adapt to these new academic and social pressures is determined, in part, by psychological, motivational, and contextual factors (Anderman & Mueller, 2009).
6Achievement Motivation Processes Intrinsic MotivationInternal factors such as self-determination, curiosity, challenge, and effort.Extrinsic MotivationExternal incentives such as rewards and punishments.
7Achievement Self-Determination and Personal Choice Interest Adolescents have control over what they are doing because of their own will, not because of external success or rewards.InterestHas been proposed as more specific than intrinsic motivation (Hulleman & others, 2008).A distinction has been made:Individual interestSituational interest
8Achievement Interest (Continued) Individual interestThought to be relatively stable.Situational interestBelieved to be generated by specific aspects of a task activity.Research on interest has focused mainly on how interest is related to learning.Linked to measures of deep learning (Wigfield & others, 2006).
9Achievement Cognitive Engagement and Self-Responsibility Phyllis Blumenfeld and her colleagues (2006a,b) have proposed another variation on intrinsic motivation:Creating learning environments that encourage students to become cognitively engaged.Have students take responsibility for their learning.The goal is to get students to become motivated to expend the effort to persist and master ideas rather than simply doing enough work to just get by and make a passing grade.
10Achievement Attribution Attribution theory states that individuals are motivated to discover the underlying causes of their own performance and behavior.Attributions are perceived causes of outcomes.
11Achievement Attribution (Continued) Adolescents are like intuitive scientists, seeking to explain the cause behind what happens (Weiner, 2005).The best strategies for teachers to use in helping students is to get adolescents to attribute their poor performance on internal factors such as a lack of effort rather than on external factors such as bad luck or blaming others.
12Achievement Mastery Motivation and Mindset Becoming cognitively engaged and self-motivated to improve are reflected in adolescents with a mastery motivation.They have a growth mindset that they can produce positive outcomes if they put forth the effort.
13Achievement Mastery Motivation Developmental psychologists Valanne Henderson and Carol Dweck (1990) found that adolescents often show two distinct responses to difficult or challenging circumstances:Mastery orientationHelpless orientation
14Achievement Mastery-oriented adolescents Instruct themselves to pay attention.Remember strategies that have worked for them in previous situation.Report feeling challenged and excited by difficult tasks, rather than being threatened by them (Anderman & Wolters, 2006).Winning isn’t everything.
15Achievement Helpless Orientation Individuals focus on their personal inadequacies, attribute difficulty to lack of ability, and display negative affect.
16Behaviors That Suggest Helplessness AchievementBehaviors That Suggest HelplessnessFig. 11.1
17Achievement Performance-oriented adolescents Are focused on winning, rather than on achievement outcome.Believe that happiness results from winning.Skill development and self-efficacy take a backseat to winning.Students can be both mastery and performance-oriented, and researchers have found that mastery goals combined with performance goals often benefit students’ success (Schunk, Pintrich, & Meece, 2008).
18Performance Orientation AchievementPerformance OrientationIndividuals are concerned with performance outcome rather than performance process.Winning is what matters.
19AchievementMindsetCarol Dweck’s (2006, 2007) most recent analysis of motivation for achievement stresses the importance of adolescents developing a mindset.Defined as the cognitive view individuals develop for themselves.Individuals have one of two mindsets:Fixed mindsetIndividuals believe that their qualities are carved in stone and cannot change.Growth mindsetIndividuals believe their qualities can change and improve through their effort.
20Achievement Mindset (Continued) A fixed mindset is similar to a helpless orientation.A growth mindset is much like having mastery motivation.Dweck (2006) argued that individuals’ mindsets influence:Whether they will be optimistic or pessimistic.Shape their goals and how hard they will strive to reach those goals.Many aspects of their lives, including achievement and success in school and sports.
21Achievement Self-Efficacy The belief that one can master a situation and produce favorable outcomes.A critical factor in whether or not adolescents achieve (Bandura, 1997, 2004, 2007, 2008, 2009).Has much in common with mastery motivation.
22Achievement Expectations Can exert a powerful influence on adolescents’ motivation (Eccles, 2007).How hard adolescents work can depend on how much they expect to accomplish.Eccles (1987, 1993) defined expectations for students’ success as “beliefs about how well they will do on upcoming tasks, either in the immediate or long-term future” (Wigfield & others, 2006).
23Achievement Expectations (Continued) Eccles identified three aspects of ability:Students’ beliefs about how good they are at a particular activity.How good they are in comparison to other individuals.How good they are in relation to their performance in other activities.In Eccles’ view, the culture’s achievement orientation also plays a role in influencing students’ expectations.How hard students work also depends on the value they place on the goal.
24Achievement Parents’ and Teachers’ Expectations Parents’ expectations are linked with children’s and adolescents’ academic achievement (Burchinal & others, 2002).Teachers’ expectations influence students’ motivation and performance.Teachers often have more positive expectations for high-ability than for low-ability students, and these expectations are likely to influence their behavior toward them.It is more beneficial to set standards that challenge adolescents and expect performance at the highest levels they are capable of achieving.
25Achievement Goal Setting, Planning, and Self-Monitoring Self-efficacy and achievement improve when adolescents set goals that are specific, proximal, and challenging (Bandura, 1997).Adolescents can set both long-term (distal) and short-term (proximal) goals.It is not enough to simply set goals.Adolescents need to learn to plan how they will reach their goals.Being a good planner means managing time effectively, setting priorities, and being organized.
26AchievementPurposeWilliam Damon (2008) proposed that purpose is the missing ingredient in many adolescents’ and emerging adults’ achievement.For Damon, purpose is an intention to accomplish something meaningful to one’s self and to contribute something to the world beyond the self.Damon concludes that most teachers and parents communicate the importance of such goals as studying hard and getting good grades, but rarely discuss what the goals might lead to—the purpose for studying hard and getting good grades.
27Achievement Social Relationships and Contexts Parents Adolescents’ relationships with parents, peers, teachers, and mentors can be key aspects of their achievement.ParentsSome additional positive parenting practices that result in improved achievement in adolescents (Wigfield & others, 2006):Knowing enough about the adolescent to provide the right amount of challenge and the right amount of support.Providing a positive emotional climate, which motivates adolescents to internalize their parents’ values and goals.Modeling motivated achievement behavior: working hard and persisting with effort at challenging tasks.
28Achievement Social Relationships and Contexts (Continued) Peers Can affect adolescents’ achievement through social goals, social comparison, and peer status.TeachersPlay a key role in adolescents’ achievement.Effective, engaging teachers provide support for adolescents’ to make good progress and encourage them to become self-regulated achievers (Pressley & others, 2007a,b).The encouragement takes place in a very positive environment, one in which adolescents are regularly being guided to become motivated to try hard and develop self-efficacy.
29Achievement Social Relationships and Contexts (Continued) Mentors Are usually older and more experienced individuals who are motivated to improve the competence and character of a young person.Mentoring can involve:DemonstrationInstructionChallengeEncouragementAs a positive mentoring experience proceeds, the mentor and the youth develop a bond of commitment and the youth develops a sense of respect and identification with the mentor (Hamilton & Hamilton, 2006).
30Achievement Social Relationships and Contexts (Continued) Mentors Mentoring may take place naturally or through a mentoring program (Hamilton & Hamilton, 2006).Mentoring programs are increasingly being advocated as a strategy for improving the achievement of secondary school and college students who are at risk for failure (Hill, 2008; Lindley, 2009; Rhodes & Lowe, 2009; Rowley, 2009).College students can play important roles as mentors for at-risk children and adolescents (Schmidt, Marks, & Derrico, 2004).
31Achievement Socio-cultural Contexts Ethnicity and Socioeconomic Status The diversity that exists among ethnic minority adolescents is evident in their achievement (Hudley, 2009; Lee & Wong, 2009).Too often the achievement of ethnic minority student—especially African American, Latino, and Native American students—has been interpreted as deficits by middle-socioeconomic-status non-Latino white standards, when they simply are culturally different and distinct.Many investigations overlook the socioeconomic-status (SES) of ethnic minority students (Graham & Taylor, 2001).Many studies have found that SES predicts achievement better than ethnicity.
32AchievementCultureSince the early 1990s the poor performance of American children and adolescents in math and science has become well publicized.
33International Comparison of 8th Grade Students’ Math Achievement: 2007 Ethnicity and CultureInternational Comparison of 8th Grade Students’ Math Achievement: 2007Fig 11.2
34Ethnicity and CultureMothers’ Beliefs About the Factors Responsible for Children’s Math Achievement in Three CountriesFig 11.3
35Achievement Some Motivational Obstacles to Achievement Achievement problems can surface when individuals:Don’t set goals.Don’t plan how to reach them.Don’t monitor progress toward the goals.Problems can also arise when individuals:Procrastinate.Become overwhelmed by anxiety.Try to protect their self-worth by avoiding failure.
36Work Socio-Historical Context of Work in Adolescence What kinds of jobs are U.S. adolescents working at today?About 17 percent work in fast-food restaurants waiting on customers and cleaning up.About 20 percent work in retail stores as cashiers or salespeople.About 10 percent in offices as clerical assistants.About 10 percent as unskilled laborers.The weight of the evidence suggests that spending large amounts of time in paid labor has limited developmental benefits for youth, and for some it is associated with risky behavior and costs to physical health (Larson, Wilson, & Rickman, 2009).
37Work Socio-Historical Context of Work in Adolescence Part-Time Work in AdolescenceWhen adolescents spend more than 20 hours per week working, there is little time to study for tests and to complete homework assignments.Working adolescents feel less involved in school, are absent more, and reported that they did not enjoy school as much as their nonworking counterparts did.
38Work Work Profiles of Adolescents Around the World In many developing countries boys often spend more time in income-generating labor than girls do while girls spend more time in unpaid labor than boys (Larson, Wilson, & Rickman, 2009).Spending large amounts of time in paid labor has limited developmental benefits for youth, and for some it is associated with risk behavior and costs to physical health (Larson, Wilson, & Rickman, 2009).
39Work Working While Going to College The percentage of full-time U.S. college students who were employed increased from 34 percent in 1970 to 46 percent in 2006 (National Center for Education Statistics, 2008c).Working can pay or help offset some costs of schooling, but working can also restrict students’ opportunities to learn and negatively influence grades.As the number of hours worked per week increased for those who identified themselves primarily as students, their grades suffered and the number of classes, class choice, and library access became more limited (National Center for Education Statistics, 2002).
40Work Working While Going to College (Continued) College (Continued) College students need to carefully examine the number of hours they work and the extent the work is having a negative impact on their college success.Although borrowing to pay for education can leave students with considerable debt, working long hours reduces the amount of time students have for studying and can decrease the likelihood that these students will do well or even complete their college degree.
41Work The Relation of Hours Worked Per Week in College to Grades Fig. 11.4
42Work Work/Career-Based Learning High School Work/career-based learning increasingly has become part of the effort to help youth make the transition from school to employment.Today’s high school diploma provides access to fewer and fewer stable, high-paying jobs.New forms of career-related education are creating options for many students.Among the new models are:Career academicsYouth apprenticeshipsTech prep programs
43Work Work/Career-Based Learning (Continued) College College students can participate in cooperative education programs, or part-time or summer work relevant to their field of study.This experience can be critical in helping students obtain the job they want when they graduate (Martinez, 2006).A co-op is a paid apprenticeship in a career that a college student is interested in pursuing.
44Work Work in Emerging Adulthood The work patterns of emerging adults have changed over the course of the last 100 years (Hamilton & Hamilton, 2006).Changing economic conditions have made the job market more competitive for emerging adults and increased the demand for more skilled workers (Gauthier & Furstenberg, 2005).A diversity of school and work patterns characterize emerging adults (Fouad & Bynner, 2008; Hamilton & Hamilton, 2006).
45Work Work in Emerging Adulthood (Continued) The nature of the transition from school to work in emerging adulthood is strongly influenced by the individual’s level of education.In the last two decades, the job market for emerging adults with only a high school education has worsened.The MacArthur Foundation Research Network on Emerging Adults recently concluded that for emerging adults who don’t go to college, the problem is not jobs but a lack of good jobs. (Setterson, Furstenberg, & Rumbaut, 2005).
46Career Development Developmental Changes Personality Types Many children have idealistic fantasies about what they want to be when they grow up.Personality TypesPersonality type theory is John Holland’s view that it is important to match an individual’s personality with a specific.
47Career Development Personality Types (Continued) Holland proposed six basic career-related personality types:RealisticInvestigativeArtisticSocialEnterprisingConventional
48Career DevelopmentHolland’s Model of Personality Types and Career ChoicesFig. 11.5
49Career Development Cognitive Factors Germeijs & Verschueren (2006) identified three important roles in adolescent’s career choices:ExplorationDecision makingPlanningAdolescents often approach career exploration and decision making with considerable ambiguity, uncertainty, and stress.
50Career Development Cognitive Factors (Continued) Many of the career decisions made by youth involve floundering and unplanned changes.Many adolescents do not adequately explore careers on their own and also receive little direction from guidance counselors at their schools.In many schools, students not only do not know what information to seek about careers, they do not know how to seek it.
51Career Development Identity Development Career development is related to the adolescent’s and emerging adult’s identity development (Murrell, 2009).Career decidedness and planning are positively related to identity achievement (Wallace-Broscious, Serafica, & Osipow, 1994).Vocational identity development plays a leading role in identity development.
52Career Development Identity Status Development in Different Domains Fig. 11.6
53Career Development Social Contexts Among the important social contexts that influence career development are:Socioeconomic statusParents and peersSchool influencesGenderEthnic minority adolescents
54RESOURCES FOR IMPROVING THE LIVES OF ADOLESCENTS Mindset by Carol Dweck. (2006). New York: Random House.Extensive information and examples are provided about how adolescents can develop a growth mind set that will improve their achievement.
55RESOURCES FOR IMPROVING THE LIVES OF ADOLESCENTS Motivation in Education edited by Dale Schunk, Paul Pintrich, & Judith Meece. (2008).An authoritative, detailed review of many aspects of achievement discussed in this chapter and their application to education.
56RESOURCES FOR IMPROVING THE LIVES OF ADOLESCENTS “Mentoring in Adolescence” by Jean Rhodes and Sarah Lowe. (2009).In R.M. Lerner & L. Steinberg (Eds.), Handbook of Adolescent Psychology (3rd Ed.). New York: Wiley.Leading experts describe research on mentoring and highlight the aspects of mentoring that are most successful in improving adolescents’ achievement.
57RESOURCES FOR IMPROVING THE LIVES OF ADOLESCENTS What Color Is Your Parachute? by Richard Bolles. (2009). Berkeley, CA: Ten Speed Press.This is an extremely popular book on job hunting.
58RESOURCES FOR IMPROVING THE LIVES OF ADOLESCENTS What Kids Need to Succeed by Peter Benson, Judy Galbraith, and Pamela Espeland. (2003).Minneapolis: Search Institute.This easy-to-read book presents commonsense ideas for parents, educators, and youth workers that can help youth succeed.
59E-LEARNING TOOLSTo help you master the material in this chapter, visit the Online Learning Center for Adolescence, 13th edition at: