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Expectancy-Value Theory Dovan Rai. Outline Background: motivational theories Expectancy-Value theory Developmental study Group differences – Gender –

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Presentation on theme: "Expectancy-Value Theory Dovan Rai. Outline Background: motivational theories Expectancy-Value theory Developmental study Group differences – Gender –"— Presentation transcript:

1 Expectancy-Value Theory Dovan Rai

2 Outline Background: motivational theories Expectancy-Value theory Developmental study Group differences – Gender – Ethnicity

3 Motivational theories Biological approach Behavioristic approach Cognitive approach – Expectancy-value theory

4 Behavioristic approach vs. cognitive approach Cognition Stimuliresponse Behavior Social World Behavioristic Theory Cognitive Theory Social World Behavior Rewards and punishment

5 Expectancy-value theory Jacquelynne Eccles (1983)

6 Expectancy-value theory Social World Achievement Behavior Task Value Expectancy Cognition and beliefs

7 Expectancy-value theory Social World Achievement Behavior Task Value Expectancy Belief and judgment about capabilities to perform a task successfully Cognition and beliefs

8 Expectancy-value theory Social World Achievement Behavior Task Value Expectancy Belief and judgment about capabilities to perform a task successfully Relative attractiveness of succeeding or failing on a task Cognition and beliefs

9 Expectancy-value theory Social World Achievement Behavior Task Value Expectancy Cognition and beliefs 1.Importance 2.Interest 3.Utility 4.cost

10 Expectancy-value theory Social World Achievement Behavior Task Value Expectancy Cognition and beliefs

11 Expectancy-value theory Social World Achievement Behavior Task Value Expectancy B = f(E,V) Cognition and beliefs

12 Expectancy-value theory Social World Achievement Behavior Performance Effort Engagement Choice Persistence Task Value Expectancy Cognition and beliefs B = f(E,V)

13 A personal example Artist High value Low expectancy

14 A personal example Engineer High expectancy Low value

15 A personal example Designer Balance of Expectancy and value

16 Too simple function? Social World Achievement Behavior Performance Effort Engagement Choice Persistence Task Value Expectancy Cognition and beliefs B = f(E,V)

17 Let other parameters load Social World Achievement Behavior Performance Effort Engagement Choice Persistence Task Value Expectancy Cognition and beliefs Culture, social behaviors Past events and performance Perception and interpretation

18 Expectancy-value theory Social World Achievement Behavior Performance Effort Engagement Choice Persistence Task Value Expectancy Cognition and beliefs Culture, social behaviors Past events and performance Perception and interpretation Affective memories

19 Expectancy-value theory Social World Achievement Behavior Performance Effort Engagement Choice Persistence Task Value Expectancy Cognition and beliefs Culture, social behaviors Past events and performance Perception and interpretation Affective memories Goals Self-schemas Perception of task difficulty

20 Expectancy-value theory Social World Achievement Behavior Performance Effort Engagement Choice Persistence Task Value Expectancy Cognition and beliefs Culture, social behaviors Past events and performance Perception and interpretation Affective memories Goals Self-schemas Perception of task difficulty

21 Expectancy-value theory Social World Achievement Behavior Performance Effort Engagement Choice Persistence Task Value Expectancy Cognition and beliefs Culture, social behaviors Past events and performance Perception and interpretation Affective memories Goals Self-schemas Perception of task difficulty B = f(E,V)

22 Outline Background: motivational theories Expectancy-Value theory Developmental study Group differences – Gender – Ethnicity

23 Development study – Wigfield and Ecceles Change in children’s expectancy, value and achievement behavior

24 Development study

25 Empirical findings Competence beliefs and task values are distinct constructs even in early elementary students (factor analysis) Competence belief and expectancy for success is less distinct Competence beliefs predict children’s subsequent grades beyond that predicted by their previous grades (structural equation modeling) Task values changes with age. Task value for math decreases along middle school.

26 Empirical validity of theoretical model Factor analysis: finding latent nodes I did not know that factor analysis is such a useful tool to make empirical validation of such theories and models.

27 One *cute* finding 4-5 year old children’s expectancies for success are quite optimistic

28 One *cute* finding 4-5 year old children’s expectancies for success are quite optimistic (even if they repeatedly failed at the task)

29 One *cute* finding Two explanations: Children’s expectancy may reflect the outcome they like to achieve rather than the reality of their performance Higher learning curve and higher optimism realistic

30 Outline Background: motivational theories Expectancy-Value theory Developmental study Group differences in expectation and values – Gender – Ethnicity

31 Why there are few women in Computer Science? Cognition and beliefs Social factors Genetic difference Feminists

32 Why are there few women in Computer Science? Cognition and beliefs Social factors Genetic difference Feminists Expectancy-value theory

33 Why are there few women in Computer Science? Cognition and beliefs Social factors Genetic difference Expectancy-value theory IDENTITY

34 Why are there few women in Computer Science? Cognition and beliefs Social factors Genetic difference Expectancy-value theory expectancy value

35 Why are there few women in Computer Science? Cognition and beliefs Social factors Genetic difference Expectancy-value theory expectancy value

36 Feedback loop Self-concept performance

37 Feedback loop: chicken egg problem Self-concept performance Social world competence

38 Amy Chua paradigm (Joe Beck) Self-concept performance Self-concept performance Helicopter momTiger mom

39 Ethnic differences in task values African American students, compared to white students have poorer academic achievement and general economic disadvantage

40 Ethnic differences in task values African American students have poorer academic achievement and general economic disadvantage Hypothesis They have lower expectancy for success and lower self- concept of ability.

41 Ethnic differences in task values African American students have poorer academic achievement and general economic disadvantage Studies They have higher self-concept and higher expectancy.

42 Achievement self-perception of ability This link is not as strong in African American students as much as in Caucasians.

43 Adaptive (high motivation to maintain engagement despite poor performance) Self-protective (protect their self esteem) Poor judgment cause of poor performance Different social comparison group

44 Motivational dynamic can be different for African American students; their self-concept not strongly based on achievement as they would devalue academic achievement.

45 Graham (1994) notes that these explanations are not suggested in the motivational literature.

46 He suggests that rather than formulating a different psychology for minority student achievement, more minority students should be included in future motivation research and samples

47 Gender and ethnic differences CaucasianAfrican American Hispanic American Boys Girls Nominate people they admired and respected

48 Gender and ethnic differences CaucasianAfrican American Hispanic American BoysHigh achieversLow achievers GirlsHigh achievers Nominate people they admired and respected

49 Gender and ethnic differences CaucasianAfrican American Hispanic American BoysHigh achieversLow achievers GirlsHigh achievers Nominate people they admired and respected Devalue achievement Stereotype threat

50 Questions and comments


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