1-2 “When contemplating starting a business, the first thing to consider is: How will this business make my life EASIER? Starting a business is difficult and takes everything you’ve got. You need every advantage possible.” - Jordan Entrepreneur’s Adage #3
1-3 Nature and Development of Entrepreneurship Entrepreneur – An individual who takes initiative to bundle resources in innovative ways and is willing to bear the risk and/or uncertainty to act. From the French: “Entre” = betweeen, “Prendre” = to take
1-4 The Entrepreneurial Process Opportunity Identification - The process by which an entrepreneur comes up with the opportunity for a new venture. Determine Market Size and Characteristics/Segments Window of Opportunity - The time period available for creating the new venture. Business Plan - The description of the future direction of the business.
1-5 How Entrepreneurs Think Entrepreneurs in particular situations may think differently than others when faced with a different task or decision environment. Given the nature of their decision-making environment, entrepreneurs may need to: Effectuate (see next slide) Be cognitively adaptable. Learn (quickly) from failure.
1-6 Effectuation processes Starts with what one has (who they are, what they know, and whom they know). Make decisions based on one’s resources rather than working backwards from goal. Entrepreneurial mind-set involves the ability to rapidly sense, act, and mobilize, under (typically) uncertain conditions. How Entrepreneurs Think (cont.)
1-7 Cognitive Adaptability describes the extent to which entrepreneurs are: Dynamic, flexible, self-regulating and engaged in the process of generating multiple decision frameworks focused on sensing and processing changes in their environments and then acting on them. Derives from an entrepreneur’s meta- cognitive awareness. How Entrepreneurs Think (cont.)
1-8 Achieving cognitive adaptability Comprehension questions – Aids understanding of the nature of the environment before addressing an entrepreneurial challenge. Connection tasks – Stimulates thinking about the current situation in terms of similarities and differences with situations previously faced and solved. Strategic tasks – Stimulates thoughts about which strategies are appropriate for solving the problem (and why) or pursuing the opportunity (and how). Reflection tasks – Stimulates thinking about their understanding and feelings as they progress through the entrepreneurial process. How Entrepreneurs Think (cont.)
1-9 Entrepreneurs with higher cognitive adaptability are better able to: Adapt to new situations. Be creative. Communicate their reasoning behind a particular response. Ultimately be successful in their entrepreneurial venture. How Entrepreneurs Think (cont.)
1-10 An entrepreneur’s motivation is not simply to make a (large) profit but also from: Loyalty to a product. Loyalty to a market and customers. Personal growth. The need to prove oneself. The need to be independent (!!) WHAT ARE YOUR ENTREPRENEURIAL MOTIVATIONS? How Entrepreneurs Think (cont.)
1-11 Before taking the plunge into a new venture, be clear on what your personal and professional motivations are for starting the business. Then make sure that launching the business can actually fulfill these motivations. Entrepreneur’s Adage #4
1-12 Why Some Businesses Fail Goals are unreasonable. Loss of key team member. Entrepreneur has not made a total commitment to the business. Lack of experience in the planned business. No sense of potential threats or weaknesses to the business. No real customer need was established for the proposed product or service. People management issues. People and resources are stretched too thin.
1-13 Learning from Business Failure Loss of a business can result in a negative emotional response from the entrepreneur. It can interfere with: Entrepreneur’s ability to learn from the failure. Motivation to try again. How Entrepreneurs Think (cont.)
1-14 Recovery and Learning Process Emotional Recovery from failure happens when thoughts about the events surrounding, and leading up to the loss of the business, no longer generate a negative emotional response. Recovery is achieved through: Loss-orientation. Restoration-orientation. How Entrepreneurs Think (cont.)
1-15 Loss-Orientation Involves working through, and processing, some aspect of the loss experience and, as a result of this process, breaking emotional bonds to the object lost. This process gradually provides meaning for the loss and eventually produces a changed viewpoint. Involves confrontation, which is physically and mentally exhausting. Characterized by feelings of relief and pain that wax and wane over time. How Entrepreneurs Think (cont.)
1-16 Restoration-Orientation Based on both avoidance and a proactiveness toward secondary sources of stress arising from a major loss. Involves suppression of direct thoughts about the loss, which requires sustained mental effort May reduce emotional significance of the loss. How Entrepreneurs Think (cont.)
1-17 A Dual Process for Learning from Failure The dual process of oscillating between the loss- orientation and restoration-orientation enables a person to: Obtain the benefits of each. Minimize the costs of maintaining one for too long. This dual process speeds the recovery process. How Entrepreneurs Think (cont.)
1-18 “Don’t expect others to be excited about your business ideas or even like them. Stop seeking acceptance from everyone around you. All that matters is acceptance from the “right” people including, of course, customers.” - Jordan Entrepreneur’s Adage #5