Different Types of Motivation Situated Motivation –What is situated cognition? What is situated motivation?
Different Types of Motivation Intrinsic Motivation Extrinsic Motivation –Which is most beneficial? Why? –“Some researchers believe that our schools foster extrinsic motivation far more often than intrinsic motivation.” Thoughts from the practicum?
The Decrease in Intrinsic Motivation Stressed importance of good grades Lack of relevance to students’ goals Overly structured, repetitive, and boring activities What is the answer?
Enhancing Intrinsic Motivation Arousing Interest –“hook,” –examples relating material to students’ cultures or prior knowledge, –give them some choice about what they will study or how they will study it – how do we do this practically?
Enhancing Intrinsic Motivation Maintaining Curiosity –hands-on experience, –surprising or challenging students with a problem they can’t solve with their current knowledge (constructivism), –getting students into a familiar pattern and then breaking that pattern
Enhancing Intrinsic Motivation Using a Variety of Interesting Presentation Modes –carefully planned and instructionally sound, –emotional material, –concrete examples, –cause-and-effect relationships, –clear organization, –games or simulations (learn about a subject from the inside) – team games better than individual (all have a good chance of success if mixed-ability)
Enhancing Intrinsic Motivation Helping Students Set Their Own Goals –people work harder for goals they set themselves Conference Schedule: discuss prior goal attainment, set new goals –ambitious but realistic, –give praise for setting and then achieving goals
Will Extrinsic Motivators Destroy Intrinsic Motivation? Yes –task is of high interest, –rewards are tangible and offered beforehand, –given without regard to success or specified level of performance
Example Chronicles of Narnia – The Horse and His Boy
Will Extrinsic Motivators Destroy Intrinsic Motivation? No –contingent on quality of performance rather than on mere participation, –seen as recognition of competence, –uninteresting task, –social rather than material
Will Extrinsic Motivators Destroy Intrinsic Motivation? Still risky –start with educational practices and self- regulation
“Students receive about 900 hours of instruction every year, and intrinsic interest alone will not keep them enthusiastically working day in and day out.”
Extrinsic has its benefits may confirm that a student is mastering the subject matter may also be essential for getting some students on the road to successful classroom learning and productivity
“Motivation should be at a maximum at moderate levels of probability of success.”
“Success breeds the desire for more success, which in turn breeds success.” Implications?
Promote Self-comparison Define success in terms of task accomplishment, skill improvement, or academic progress Minimize students’ awareness of their classmates’ performance levels Provide opportunities for students to assess their own performance and monitor their improvement over time Highlight improvement
Good Feedback provides information that students cannot get on their own identifies specific strengths that students have and specific weaknesses that can be addressed maintains students’ self-efficacy and self- esteem
Performance v. Learning What are performance goals? What are learning/mastery goals? How would each respond to a challenging situation?
Most students, if they are motivated to succeed in their schoolwork, are primarily concerned about getting good grades, and they prefer short, easy tasks to lengthier, more challenging ones. Sound familiar?
How do we combat this attitude? Future usefulness Meaningful learning Show progress Emphasize effort and the value of mistakes Self-determination
“Students in schools whose teachers have high expectations achieve more than those in other schools.”
Impact of Teachers Especially strong in early grades. Why? Optimistic, but realistic, expectations for their performance Attribute their successes and failures to things over which either they or we have control Look for strengths in every student
Concepts from the basics sheet Anxiety Attribution Learned Helplessness
Which techniques are more effective for controlling behavior? Which techniques promote intrinsic motivation? Which techniques are more likely to have a long- lasting effect? Which techniques promote community over competition? Which techniques are more likely to elicit understanding? Which techniques would you choose to use in your classroom? Why?