Presentation on theme: "Aim: How can I prepare for my exam in Child Development? Do Now: Take out your review questions and answers."— Presentation transcript:
Aim: How can I prepare for my exam in Child Development? Do Now: Take out your review questions and answers.
1. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Designed as a pyramid with 5 sections Read from the bottom to top beginning with physical needs, safety, love and belonging, esteem and at the top Self Actualization In order to reach your full potential, Maslow said that you had to start with satisfying your physical needs then move up the pyramid satisfying each level of needs until you self actualized. This is a lifelong process; self actualization is not an endpoint.
2. Developmental Task A developmental task is something that should be mastered by a certain stage in life For example walking, potty training, talking
3. Who is Robert Havighurst? Educator and behavioral scientist Believed achieving developmental tasks leads to happiness and success with later tasks Said that developmental tasks of children come from 3 sources: Physical growth – helpless to walking and reading Social pressures – rewards and penalties. Culture plays a big influence Inner pressures – the actual push to achieve comes from within. Children work harder to achieve tasks they like.
4. What role does culture play? Culture plays a huge role for an individual Culture affects everyone in the same ways Religion Language Tradition Celebrations Foods Clothing Greetings
5. What is a developmental delay? A developmental delay is when a child behaves like a younger child. Example: an 18 month old child who is not walking yet A 3 year old not yet talking
6. What are the four reasons we study children? The four reasons we study children are: Understand yourself – what does it take to take that first step? Be a responsible parent – meet the needs of your children Protect children’s rights – the United Nations recognized the importance and developed UNICEF To work with children – to know how to service them in the best way
7. What is child development? Child development is the scientific study of child from conception to adolesence
8. What is included under physical needs according to Maslow? According to Maslow physical needs include: Food Water Air Shelter Clothing/Footwear Medical Care
9. What is developmental acceleration? Developmental acceleration is when a child behaves like an older child. Example: a 9 month old who is walking; a 1 year reading
10. What are the needs of children? The needs of children are: Physical Intellectual Social-Emotional Guidance/Discipline Nurturance
11. What are the stages of the Individual Life Cycle? What is happening in each stage? The individual life cycle has 6 stages: Prenatal – 0-9months – fastest growth stage – go from single cell to complete organism Neonatal- 2 weeks-getting used to life on the outside Infant -2 weeks to 1 st birthday – developing the foundation for thinking, motor and language skills Toddler – mos. – testing dependence on adults, makes strides in thinking, language and motor skills Preschool – 3 to 6 yrs – develops self concept, more self sufficient, should be playing exploring their world School age yrs – achievement central goal, mastering reading writing and arithmetic, learning peer interaction, learning self control, learning by group instruction
12. Socialization Teaching a child how to live in a group; what is acceptable or unacceptable
13. Can a child be both developmentally accelerated and delayed? Yes a child can be both developmentally delayed and accelerated. Because different areas of the child mature and develop differently they can be ahead in one area (speech, for example) and delayed in another (motor skills, for example.)
14. What is the shortest stage of the individual life cycle? The shortest stage is the neonatal stage. It lasts 2 weeks starting on a child’s birthday During this stage the child is getting used to life on the outside
15. If a person has all their previous needs met but fails to self actualize, what will happen to him/her according to Maslow? If a person has all their previous needs met and fails to self actualize they will become psychologically sick according to Maslow.
16. List 5 examples of characteristics governed by heredity The following characteristics are governed by heredity: Eye color Hair color and texture Facial features Temperament Colorblindness Certain genetic diseases like sickle cell or cystic fibrosis Height Intellegence
17. What are the interrelated parts of growth and development The interrelated parts of growth and development are Physical Mental and Social/emotional
18. Environment Environment is the sum total of everything around you. It includes people, places or events.
19. Heredity Heredity is the sum of all traits passed on by blood relatives
20. What is a sequenced step? A sequenced step is a logical normal progression. For example before you can run you had to have walked Before you can read you had to identify letters of the alphbet
What is self actualization (SA)? Self Actualization is the term coined by Maslow that indicated that an individual had, at a given point in time, reached their full potential. Their lower needs had been met SA is not an endpoint; it is a life long process
22. Define “Teachable moment” A teachable moment is a time at which a child is likely to be particularly disposed to learn something or particularly responsive to being taught or made aware of something
23. Name 5 developmental Tasks Walking Talking Potty training Throwing a ball Dancing Feeding themselves Dressing Stacking blocks Tying shoes Picking up toys Doing a puzzle Writing their name Coloring Cutting out a picture Counting Reading
24. According to Havighurst what are the sources of developmental tasks? Havighurst said that developmental tasks of children come from 3 sources: Physical growth – helpless to walking and reading Social pressures – rewards and penalties. Culture plays a big influence Inner pressures – the actual push to achieve comes from within. Children work harder to achieve tasks they like.
25. According to Maslow, what are the motives that guide our behavior? According to Maslow our behavior is driven by one of two motives: Deficiency motives (lack of some needed object) or Growth motives (satisfaction comes from the growth that provides the expression of this motive)
26. Of all of our needs, which are the strongest according to Maslow? Why? According to Maslow, our strongest needs are our physical needs. They are instinctual and biological; we need these for our basic survival
27.) What is a child centered society? A Child Centered Society is one that sees children as important and works for their good.
28.) Define development Development is the gradual process through which babies become adults
29.) When does a child develop self concept? A child develops self concept during the preschool stage of the individual life cycle generally between the ages of 3 and 6
30. What influences growth and development more heredity or environment? Ideally they are 50/50 Genes control how fast a babies bones develop (heredity) but proper diet is needed for a baby to grow (environment).
32. What are the principles of growth and development? 1.) G&D are constant 2.) G&D are gradual and continuous 3.) G&D happen in sequenced steps 4.) G&D happen at different rates 5.) G&D have interrelated parts