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Learning About Children

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Presentation on theme: "Learning About Children"— Presentation transcript:


2 Learning About Children
1 Learning About Children

3 Key Terms child-centered society socialize culture character
development child development individual life cycle heredity environment genes genetics neurons wiring axons dendrites continued 3

4 Key Terms synapse pruning window of opportunity plasticity
developmental acceleration developmental delay principles of growth and development sequenced steps teachable moment developmental tasks direct observation indirect observation

5 Objective List reasons for learning about children.

6 Why Study Children? Understand yourself Be a responsible parent
Protect children’s rights Work with children

7 Children Need Safe Environments
Homes and schools that promote health and well-being A child-centered society sees children as important cares about their well-being works to meet their needs

8 To Be a Responsible Parent
Physical needs food, clothing, shelter physical protection proper health and medical care Intellectual needs positive learning experiences continued

9 To Be a Responsible Parent
Social needs socialize children teach children about their culture help children develop character Trust needs Love and guidance needs

10 Children’s Rights An identity A family
Express themselves and have access to information A safe, healthy life Special protection in times of war An education Special care for the disabled Protection from discrimination Protection from abuse Protection from harmful work Special treatment if arrested

11 Objective Define the term child development.

12 What Is Child Development?
Development is the gradual process through which babies become adults Child development is the scientific study of children from conception to adolescence The individual life cycle is a description of the stages of change people experience throughout life

13 Objective Summarize the six stages of the individual life cycle that involve children.

14 Individual Life Cycle— Childhood Stages
Prenatal stage: conception to birth Neonatal stage: birth through the second week Infancy stage: two weeks through the first birthday Toddler stage: 12–36 months Preschool stage: 3–6 years School-age stage: 6–12 years

15 Objective Describe three factors that promote growth and development.

16 Factors That Influence Growth and Development

17 Heredity Heredity includes traits passed to a child from blood relatives Genes are sections of the DNA molecule found in cells determine traits Genetics is the study of heredity continued

18 Heredity The genes’ instructions are lifelong
Genes affect some parts of growth and development more than others Some genes determine whether a person will have a trait Other genes affect the range of a trait

19 Environment Physical conditions are part of the environment
food, rest Environments shape experiences Relationships with others are part of the environment Environments affect physical, intellectual, and social-emotional traits

20 Heredity and Environment Combined
Genes and the environment work together

21 Objective Explain how brain development occurs.

22 Basic Wiring Neurons are brain cells that direct various tasks of the brain Wiring is a network of fibers that carry signals between neurons Axons are cables that transmit signals from a neuron to other neurons continued

23 Basic Wiring Dendrites are cables that allow each neuron to receive signals sent by other neurons Synapse is a gap between neurons across which electrical impulses can be transmitted 23

24 Heredity and Environment Interact
Heredity and environment work together to develop the brain Rich sensory experiences enhance brain development create new dendrites Pruning is the process in which the brain weeds out unused pathways

25 Windows of Opportunity
Genes control the order and timetable of brain development Each region of the brain has a specific function develop at various rates Windows of opportunity occur prime period for developing a specific skill may overlap

26 Brain Plasticity Plasticity lessens with age
early years are crucial Plasticity can have positive and negative effects on brain development continued

27 Brain Plasticity Interaction with loving adults engaged in daily tasks and family-type activities Choices in what and how to learn Time to practice and master skills continued

28 Brain Plasticity The infant and toddler years are times of great brain activity and learning Some children need early professional intervention to overcome obstacles to healthy brain development Good early environments provide the best foundation for development and promote resiliency

29 What Do You Think? Do you think most families know what best supports brain development in young children? Why or why not? Do academic exercises, such as computer programs for infant learning, support brain development in young children? Why or why not?

30 Objective Identify differences in the rate of growth and development.

31 Differences in the Rate of Growth and Development
Growth and development occurs in expected sequences stages Children enter and leave stages at different rates developmental acceleration developmental delay continued

32 Differences in the Rate of Growth and Development
Children do not advance in all areas at the same rate Children may be accelerated or delayed in one or more areas Children may be accelerated in one area and delayed in another

33 Objective Explain and give examples of some major principles and theories of growth and development.

34 Principles of Growth and Development
Principles of growth and development do not fit every person exactly Key principles constant gradual and continuous sequenced steps different rates interrelated

35 Growth and Development Are Constant
Many aspects of growth and development are unchanging constancy Traits controlled by heredity do not change People often live in the same environment for many years

36 Growth and Development Are Gradual and Continuous
Changes happen in little, unbroken steps Positive aspects development does not reverse overnight if development is delayed, may occur later in life continued

37 Growth and Development Are Gradual and Continuous
Negative aspects poor growth and development are not easily reversed a delay because of environmental issues may need intervention

38 Growth and Development Happen in Sequenced Steps
Change must build on what children have already learned Steps in growth and development follow one another in sequenced steps continued

39 Growth and Development Happen in Sequenced Steps
A teachable moment occurs when the body and mind are physically ready caregivers offer encouragement the child feels a strong desire to learn Children feel stressed if pushed to learn before the teachable moment Waiting too long after a teachable moment may cause problems

40 Growth and Development Happen at Different Rates
Both fast and slow periods of growth and development occur intense growth in infancy, slower in middle school Rates of growth and development vary from one child to another sequence is similar differ due to heredity, environment, and motivation continued

41 Growth and Development Happen at Different Rates
Heredity determines different growth rates Children need a good environment to grow at the best rate lags may occur if environment is lacking hurrying a child may cause stress Some children are more motivated to grow and achieve than others

42 Growth and Development Are Interrelated
All aspects of growth and development interact in complex ways

43 Theories of Growth and Development
Erik Erikson (1902–1994) Jean Piaget (1896–1980) Lev Vygotsky (1896–1934) Robert J. Havighurst (1900–1991) Abraham Maslow (1908–1970)

44 Havighurst’s Theory of Developmental Tasks
Mastery of skills and activities that fit level of growth and development Failure to achieve developmental tasks leads to unhappiness and problems with later tasks continued

45 Havighurst’s Theory of Developmental Tasks
Developmental tasks come from three sources physical growth social pressures inner pressures

46 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs
Development is a result of meeting personal needs People work to fulfill basic needs and higher-level needs Lower-level needs must be met before higher-level needs can be pursued continued

47 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs
Physical needs air, water, food, clothing, shelter Security need to feel safe in surroundings Love and acceptance need for support, assurance, praise, acceptance Esteem need to be liked and accepted continued

48 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs
Self-actualization all needs have been fulfilled to some degree

49 Objective Develop observation skills.

50 Observing Children Observation is the oldest, most common, and best way to learn about human behavior Observing adults who work with children provide a model Many observational skills are learned

51 Why Observe Children?

52 Ways to Observe Direct observation means watching children in natural environments Indirect observation includes gathering information about children from various sources questioning parents, teachers, children examining children’s products, such as artwork or writings

53 Guidelines for Observing
Know your objectives Obtain permission to observe Know what to do at the site Ask questions at convenient times Do not distract children from activities Observe carefully and objectively Record accurately Protect the rights of all observed continued

54 Guidelines for Observing
Protect rights subject observer List behaviors to follow Help make observations meaningful

55 What Would You Do? You are working in a child care facility caring for 10 five-year-olds One child cries every day when transitioning from free play to lunch How could you use observation to address this problem?

56 Glossary of Key Terms axons. Long, thick cables that transmit all the signals from a neuron to other neurons. character. Principles and beliefs that guide one’s conduct and define one’s personality and behavior. child-centered society. Society that sees children as important, cares about their well-being, and works to meet their needs.

57 Glossary of Key Terms child development. Scientific study of children from conception to adolescence. culture. Way of life within a group that includes language, beliefs, attitudes, values, rituals, and skills. dendrites. Short, bushy cables that allow each neuron to receive signals sent by other neurons.

58 Glossary of Key Terms development. Gradual process of growth through many stages, such as before birth, infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. developmental acceleration. When a child performs like an older child. developmental delay. When a child performs like a younger child.

59 Glossary of Key Terms developmental tasks. Skills that should be mastered at a certain stage in life. direct observation. Watching children in their natural environments. environment. Sum of all the conditions and situations that surround and affect a child’s growth and development.

60 Glossary of Key Terms genes. Sections of the DNA molecule found in a person’s cells that determine the individual traits the person will have. genetics. Study of the factors involved in the passing of traits from one generation of living beings to the next. heredity. Sum of all the traits that are passed to a child from blood relatives.

61 Glossary of Key Terms indirect observation. Observation done by methods other than watching children, including asking other people questions about the children and observing the products children make. individual life cycle. Description of the stages of change people experience throughout life.

62 Glossary of Key Terms neurons. Brain cells that send and receive electrical impulses amongst each other to direct the various tasks of the brain. plasticity. Ability of the brain to be shaped and reshaped, which is greatest early in life. principles of growth and development. Statements of the general patterns in which growth and development take place in people.

63 Glossary of Key Terms pruning. Process of weeding out underused or weak pathways between neurons. sequenced steps. Steps in growth and development that follow one another in a set order. socialize. To train a child to live as part of a group, such as the family, culture, or society.

64 Glossary of Key Terms synapse. Tiny gap between a dendrite of one neuron and the axon of another across which electrical impulses can be transmitted. teachable moment. Time when a person can learn a new task because the body is physically ready, caregivers encourage and support, and the child feels a strong desire to learn.

65 Glossary of Key Terms window of opportunity. Prime period in a child’s life for developing a particular skill if given the opportunity. wiring. Network of fibers that carry brain signals between neurons.

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