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© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc.
1 Learning About Children
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Key Terms child-centered society socialize culture character development child development individual life cycle heredity environment genes genetics neurons wiring axons dendrites continued
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Key Terms synapse pruning window of opportunity plasticity developmental acceleration developmental delay principles of growth and development sequenced steps teachable moment developmental tasks direct observation indirect observation
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objective List reasons for learning about children.
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Why Study Children? Understand yourself Be a responsible parent Protect childrens rights Work with children
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Children Need Safe Environments Homes and schools that promote health and well-being A child-centered societychild-centered society – sees children as important – cares about their well-being – works to meet their needs
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. To Be a Responsible Parent Physical needs – food, clothing, shelter – physical protection – proper health and medical care Intellectual needs – positive learning experiences continued
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. To Be a Responsible Parent Social needs – socialize children socialize – teach children about their cultureculture – help children develop charactercharacter Trust needs Love and guidance needs
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Childrens Rights An identity A family Express themselves and have access to information A safe, healthy life Special protection in times of war An education Special care for the disabled Protection from discrimination Protection from abuse Protection from harmful work Special treatment if arrested
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objective Define the term child development.
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. What Is Child Development? Development is the gradual process through which babies become adults Development Child development is the scientific study of children from conception to adolescence Child development The individual life cycle is a description of the stages of change people experience throughout lifeindividual life cycle
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objective Summarize the six stages of the individual life cycle that involve children.
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Individual Life Cycle Childhood Stages Prenatal stage: conception to birth Neonatal stage: birth through the second week Infancy stage: two weeks through the first birthday Toddler stage: 12–36 months Preschool stage: 3–6 years School-age stage: 6–12 years
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objective Describe three factors that promote growth and development.
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Factors That Influence Growth and Development
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Heredity Heredity includes traits passed to a child from blood relatives Heredity Genes are sections of the DNA molecule Genes – found in cells – determine traits Genetics is the study of heredity Genetics continued
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Heredity The genes instructions are lifelong Genes affect some parts of growth and development more than others Some genes determine whether a person will have a trait Other genes affect the range of a trait
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Environment Physical conditions are part of the environment – food, rest Environments shape experiences Relationships with others are part of the environment Environments affect physical, intellectual, and social-emotional traits
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Heredity and Environment Combined Genes and the environment work together
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objective Explain how brain development occurs.
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Basic Wiring Neurons are brain cells that direct various tasks of the brain Neurons Wiring is a network of fibers that carry signals between neurons Wiring Axons are cables that transmit signals from a neuron to other neurons Axons continued
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Basic Wiring Dendrites are cables that allow each neuron to receive signals sent by other neurons Dendrites Synapse is a gap between neurons across which electrical impulses can be transmitted Synapse
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Heredity and Environment Interact Heredity and environment work together to develop the brain Rich sensory experiences enhance brain development – create new dendrites Pruning is the process in which the brain weeds out unused pathways Pruning
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Windows of Opportunity Genes control the order and timetable of brain development Each region of the brain has a specific function – develop at various rates Windows of opportunity occur Windows of opportunity – prime period for developing a specific skill – may overlap
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Brain Plasticity Plasticity lessens with age Plasticity – early years are crucial Plasticity can have positive and negative effects on brain development continued
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Brain Plasticity Interaction with loving adults engaged in daily tasks and family- type activities Choices in what and how to learn Time to practice and master skills continued
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Brain Plasticity The infant and toddler years are times of great brain activity and learning Some children need early professional intervention to overcome obstacles to healthy brain development Good early environments provide the best foundation for development and promote resiliency
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. What Do You Think? Do you think most families know what best supports brain development in young children? Why or why not? Do academic exercises, such as computer programs for infant learning, support brain development in young children? Why or why not?
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objective Identify differences in the rate of growth and development.
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Differences in the Rate of Growth and Development Growth and development occurs in expected sequences – stages Children enter and leave stages at different rates – developmental acceleration developmental acceleration – developmental delay developmental delay continued
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Differences in the Rate of Growth and Development Children do not advance in all areas at the same rate Children may be accelerated or delayed in one or more areas Children may be accelerated in one area and delayed in another
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objective Explain and give examples of some major principles and theories of growth and development.
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Principles of Growth and Development Principles of growth and development do not fit every person exactly Principles of growth and development Key principles – constant – gradual and continuous – sequenced steps – different rates – interrelated
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Growth and Development Are Constant Many aspects of growth and development are unchanging – constancy Traits controlled by heredity do not change People often live in the same environment for many years
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Growth and Development Are Gradual and Continuous Changes happen in little, unbroken steps Positive aspects – development does not reverse overnight – if development is delayed, may occur later in life continued
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Growth and Development Are Gradual and Continuous Negative aspects – poor growth and development are not easily reversed – a delay because of environmental issues may need intervention
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Growth and Development Happen in Sequenced Steps Change must build on what children have already learned Steps in growth and development follow one another in sequenced steps sequenced steps continued
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Growth and Development Happen in Sequenced Steps A teachable moment occurs when teachable moment – the body and mind are physically ready – caregivers offer encouragement – the child feels a strong desire to learn Children feel stressed if pushed to learn before the teachable moment Waiting too long after a teachable moment may cause problems
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Growth and Development Happen at Different Rates Both fast and slow periods of growth and development occur – intense growth in infancy, slower in middle school Rates of growth and development vary from one child to another – sequence is similar – differ due to heredity, environment, and motivation continued
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Growth and Development Happen at Different Rates Heredity determines different growth rates Children need a good environment to grow at the best rate – lags may occur if environment is lacking – hurrying a child may cause stress Some children are more motivated to grow and achieve than others
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Growth and Development Are Interrelated All aspects of growth and development interact in complex ways
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Theories of Growth and Development Erik Erikson (1902–1994) Jean Piaget (1896–1980) Lev Vygotsky (1896–1934) Robert J. Havighurst (1900–1991) Abraham Maslow (1908–1970)
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Havighursts Theory of Developmental Tasks Mastery of skills and activities that fit level of growth and development Failure to achieve developmental tasks leads to unhappiness and problems with later tasksdevelopmental tasks continued
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Havighursts Theory of Developmental Tasks Developmental tasks come from three sources – physical growth – social pressures – inner pressures
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Maslows Hierarchy of Human Needs Development is a result of meeting personal needs People work to fulfill basic needs and higher-level needs Lower-level needs must be met before higher-level needs can be pursued continued
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Maslows Hierarchy of Human Needs Physical needs – air, water, food, clothing, shelter Security – need to feel safe in surroundings Love and acceptance – need for support, assurance, praise, acceptance Esteem – need to be liked and accepted continued
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Maslows Hierarchy of Human Needs Self- actualization – all needs have been fulfilled to some degree
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Objective Develop observation skills.
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Observing Children Observation is the oldest, most common, and best way to learn about human behavior Observing adults who work with children provide a model Many observational skills are learned
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Why Observe Children?
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Ways to Observe Direct observation means watching children in natural environments Direct observation Indirect observation includes gathering information about children from various sources Indirect observation – questioning parents, teachers, children – examining childrens products, such as artwork or writings
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Guidelines for Observing Know your objectives Obtain permission to observe Know what to do at the site Ask questions at convenient times Do not distract children from activities Observe carefully and objectively Record accurately Protect the rights of all observed continued
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. Guidelines for Observing Protect rights – subject – observer List behaviors to follow Help make observations meaningful
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. What Would You Do? You are working in a child care facility caring for 10 five-year-olds One child cries every day when transitioning from free play to lunch How could you use observation to address this problem?
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. axons. Long, thick cables that transmit all the signals from a neuron to other neurons. character. Principles and beliefs that guide ones conduct and define ones personality and behavior. child-centered society. Society that sees children as important, cares about their well-being, and works to meet their needs. Glossary of Key Terms
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. child development. Scientific study of children from conception to adolescence. culture. Way of life within a group that includes language, beliefs, attitudes, values, rituals, and skills. dendrites. Short, bushy cables that allow each neuron to receive signals sent by other neurons. Glossary of Key Terms
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. development. Gradual process of growth through many stages, such as before birth, infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. developmental acceleration. When a child performs like an older child. developmental delay. When a child performs like a younger child. Glossary of Key Terms
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. developmental tasks. Skills that should be mastered at a certain stage in life. direct observation. Watching children in their natural environments. environment. Sum of all the conditions and situations that surround and affect a childs growth and development. Glossary of Key Terms
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. genes. Sections of the DNA molecule found in a persons cells that determine the individual traits the person will have. genetics. Study of the factors involved in the passing of traits from one generation of living beings to the next. heredity. Sum of all the traits that are passed to a child from blood relatives. Glossary of Key Terms
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. indirect observation. Observation done by methods other than watching children, including asking other people questions about the children and observing the products children make. individual life cycle. Description of the stages of change people experience throughout life. Glossary of Key Terms
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. neurons. Brain cells that send and receive electrical impulses amongst each other to direct the various tasks of the brain. plasticity. Ability of the brain to be shaped and reshaped, which is greatest early in life. principles of growth and development. Statements of the general patterns in which growth and development take place in people. Glossary of Key Terms
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. pruning. Process of weeding out underused or weak pathways between neurons. sequenced steps. Steps in growth and development that follow one another in a set order. socialize. To train a child to live as part of a group, such as the family, culture, or society. Glossary of Key Terms
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. synapse. Tiny gap between a dendrite of one neuron and the axon of another across which electrical impulses can be transmitted. teachable moment. Time when a person can learn a new task because the body is physically ready, caregivers encourage and support, and the child feels a strong desire to learn. Glossary of Key Terms
© Goodheart-Willcox Co., Inc. window of opportunity. Prime period in a childs life for developing a particular skill if given the opportunity. wiring. Network of fibers that carry brain signals between neurons. Glossary of Key Terms
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