2 Learning About Children 1Learning About Children
3 Key Terms child-centered society socialize culture character developmentchild developmentindividual life cycleheredityenvironmentgenesgeneticsneuronswiringaxonsdendritescontinued3
4 Key Terms synapse pruning window of opportunity plasticity developmental accelerationdevelopmental delayprinciples of growth and developmentsequenced stepsteachable momentdevelopmental tasksdirect observationindirect observation
5 ObjectiveList reasons for learning about children.
6 Why Study Children? Understand yourself Be a responsible parent Protect children’s rightsWork with children
7 Children Need Safe Environments Homes and schools that promote health and well-beingA child-centered societysees children as importantcares about their well-beingworks to meet their needs
8 To Be a Responsible Parent Physical needsfood, clothing, shelterphysical protectionproper health and medical careIntellectual needspositive learning experiencescontinued
9 To Be a Responsible Parent Social needssocialize childrenteach children about their culturehelp children develop characterTrust needsLove and guidance needs
10 Children’s Rights An identity A family Express themselves and have access to informationA safe, healthy lifeSpecial protection in times of warAn educationSpecial care for the disabledProtection from discriminationProtection from abuseProtection from harmful workSpecial treatment if arrested
12 What Is Child Development? Development is the gradual process through which babies become adultsChild development is the scientific study of children from conception to adolescenceThe individual life cycle is a description of the stages of change people experience throughout life
13 ObjectiveSummarize the six stages of the individual life cycle that involve children.
14 Individual Life Cycle— Childhood Stages Prenatal stage: conception to birthNeonatal stage: birth through the second weekInfancy stage: two weeks through the first birthdayToddler stage: 12–36 monthsPreschool stage: 3–6 yearsSchool-age stage: 6–12 years
15 ObjectiveDescribe three factors that promote growth and development.
17 HeredityHeredity includes traits passed to a child from blood relativesGenes are sections of the DNA moleculefound in cellsdetermine traitsGenetics is the study of hereditycontinued
18 Heredity The genes’ instructions are lifelong Genes affect some parts of growth and development more than othersSome genes determine whether a person will have a traitOther genes affect the range of a trait
19 Environment Physical conditions are part of the environment food, restEnvironments shape experiencesRelationships with others are part of the environmentEnvironments affect physical, intellectual, and social-emotional traits
20 Heredity and Environment Combined Genes and the environment work together
22 Basic WiringNeurons are brain cells that direct various tasks of the brainWiring is a network of fibers that carry signals between neuronsAxons are cables that transmit signals from a neuron to other neuronscontinued
23 Basic WiringDendrites are cables that allow each neuron to receive signals sent by other neuronsSynapse is a gap between neurons across which electrical impulses can be transmitted23
24 Heredity and Environment Interact Heredity and environment work together to develop the brainRich sensory experiences enhance brain developmentcreate new dendritesPruning is the process in which the brain weeds out unused pathways
25 Windows of Opportunity Genes control the order and timetable of brain developmentEach region of the brain has a specific functiondevelop at various ratesWindows of opportunity occurprime period for developing a specific skillmay overlap
26 Brain Plasticity Plasticity lessens with age early years are crucialPlasticity can have positive and negative effects on brain developmentcontinued
27 Brain PlasticityInteraction with loving adults engaged in daily tasks and family-type activitiesChoices in what and how to learnTime to practice and master skillscontinued
28 Brain PlasticityThe infant and toddler years are times of great brain activity and learningSome children need early professional intervention to overcome obstacles to healthy brain developmentGood early environments provide the best foundation for development and promote resiliency
29 What Do You Think?Do you think most families know what best supports brain development in young children? Why or why not?Do academic exercises, such as computer programs for infant learning, support brain development in young children? Why or why not?
30 ObjectiveIdentify differences in the rate of growth and development.
31 Differences in the Rate of Growth and Development Growth and development occurs in expected sequencesstagesChildren enter and leave stages at different ratesdevelopmental accelerationdevelopmental delaycontinued
32 Differences in the Rate of Growth and Development Children do not advance in all areas at the same rateChildren may be accelerated or delayed in one or more areasChildren may be accelerated in one area and delayed in another
33 ObjectiveExplain and give examples of some major principles and theories of growth and development.
34 Principles of Growth and Development Principles of growth and development do not fit every person exactlyKey principlesconstantgradual and continuoussequenced stepsdifferent ratesinterrelated
35 Growth and Development Are Constant Many aspects of growth and development are unchangingconstancyTraits controlled by heredity do not changePeople often live in the same environment for many years
36 Growth and Development Are Gradual and Continuous Changes happen in little, unbroken stepsPositive aspectsdevelopment does not reverse overnightif development is delayed, may occur later in lifecontinued
37 Growth and Development Are Gradual and Continuous Negative aspectspoor growth and development are not easily reverseda delay because of environmental issues may need intervention
38 Growth and Development Happen in Sequenced Steps Change must build on what children have already learnedSteps in growth and development follow one another in sequenced stepscontinued
39 Growth and Development Happen in Sequenced Steps A teachable moment occurs whenthe body and mind are physically readycaregivers offer encouragementthe child feels a strong desire to learnChildren feel stressed if pushed to learn before the teachable momentWaiting too long after a teachable moment may cause problems
40 Growth and Development Happen at Different Rates Both fast and slow periods of growth and development occurintense growth in infancy, slower in middle schoolRates of growth and development vary from one child to anothersequence is similardiffer due to heredity, environment, and motivationcontinued
41 Growth and Development Happen at Different Rates Heredity determines different growth ratesChildren need a good environment to grow at the best ratelags may occur if environment is lackinghurrying a child may cause stressSome children are more motivated to grow and achieve than others
42 Growth and Development Are Interrelated All aspects of growth and development interact in complex ways
43 Theories of Growth and Development Erik Erikson (1902–1994)Jean Piaget (1896–1980)Lev Vygotsky (1896–1934)Robert J. Havighurst (1900–1991)Abraham Maslow (1908–1970)
44 Havighurst’s Theory of Developmental Tasks Mastery of skills and activities that fit level of growth and developmentFailure to achieve developmental tasks leads to unhappiness and problems with later taskscontinued
45 Havighurst’s Theory of Developmental Tasks Developmental tasks come from three sourcesphysical growthsocial pressuresinner pressures
46 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs Development is a result of meeting personal needsPeople work to fulfill basic needs and higher-level needsLower-level needs must be met before higher-level needs can be pursuedcontinued
47 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs Physical needsair, water, food, clothing, shelterSecurityneed to feel safe in surroundingsLove and acceptanceneed for support, assurance, praise, acceptanceEsteemneed to be liked and acceptedcontinued
48 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs Self-actualizationall needs have been fulfilled to some degree
52 Ways to ObserveDirect observation means watching children in natural environmentsIndirect observation includes gathering information about children from various sourcesquestioning parents, teachers, childrenexamining children’s products, such as artwork or writings
53 Guidelines for Observing Know your objectivesObtain permission to observeKnow what to do at the siteAsk questions at convenient timesDo not distract children from activitiesObserve carefully and objectivelyRecord accuratelyProtect the rights of all observedcontinued
54 Guidelines for Observing Protect rightssubjectobserverList behaviors to followHelp make observations meaningful
55 What Would You Do?You are working in a child care facility caring for 10 five-year-oldsOne child cries every day when transitioning from free play to lunchHow could you use observation to address this problem?
56 Glossary of Key Termsaxons. Long, thick cables that transmit all the signals from a neuron to other neurons.character. Principles and beliefs that guide one’s conduct and define one’s personality and behavior.child-centered society. Society that sees children as important, cares about their well-being, and works to meet their needs.
57 Glossary of Key Termschild development. Scientific study of children from conception to adolescence.culture. Way of life within a group that includes language, beliefs, attitudes, values, rituals, and skills.dendrites. Short, bushy cables that allow each neuron to receive signals sent by other neurons.
58 Glossary of Key Termsdevelopment. Gradual process of growth through many stages, such as before birth, infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood.developmental acceleration. When a child performs like an older child.developmental delay. When a child performs like a younger child.
59 Glossary of Key Termsdevelopmental tasks. Skills that should be mastered at a certain stage in life.direct observation. Watching children in their natural environments.environment. Sum of all the conditions and situations that surround and affect a child’s growth and development.
60 Glossary of Key Termsgenes. Sections of the DNA molecule found in a person’s cells that determine the individual traits the person will have.genetics. Study of the factors involved in the passing of traits from one generation of living beings to the next.heredity. Sum of all the traits that are passed to a child from blood relatives.
61 Glossary of Key Termsindirect observation. Observation done by methods other than watching children, including asking other people questions about the children and observing the products children make.individual life cycle. Description of the stages of change people experience throughout life.
62 Glossary of Key Termsneurons. Brain cells that send and receive electrical impulses amongst each other to direct the various tasks of the brain.plasticity. Ability of the brain to be shaped and reshaped, which is greatest early in life.principles of growth and development. Statements of the general patterns in which growth and development take place in people.
63 Glossary of Key Termspruning. Process of weeding out underused or weak pathways between neurons.sequenced steps. Steps in growth and development that follow one another in a set order.socialize. To train a child to live as part of a group, such as the family, culture, or society.
64 Glossary of Key Termssynapse. Tiny gap between a dendrite of one neuron and the axon of another across which electrical impulses can be transmitted.teachable moment. Time when a person can learn a new task because the body is physically ready, caregivers encourage and support, and the child feels a strong desire to learn.
65 Glossary of Key Termswindow of opportunity. Prime period in a child’s life for developing a particular skill if given the opportunity.wiring. Network of fibers that carry brain signals between neurons.