2 What is a Folktale?Folktales were passed down from generation to generation by word of mouth, which is called oral tradition.Folktales were made up to explain the wonders of the world or to teach morals and lessons.
3 Common Elements of Folktales: Rule of Three: Items happen in sets of 3 or 7s (things happen in 3s, lots of repetition or repeated phrases)- 3 characters- 3 events- 3 tests the character must overcomeEx: “Jack and the Beanstalk” showed Jack climbing the beanstalk three times. The wicked stepmother visited Snow White in the forest three times before she finally got her to eat the apple. Three little pigs were tested by the wolf.Magic/Spirits are commonly used, to explain the unexplainable.You will see similar characteristics from stories across the world
4 Fables, fairy tales, legends, and myths all fit under this umbrella. FolktalesMythsFablesFairy talesLegendsFables, fairy tales, legends, and myths all fit under this umbrella.
5 Elements of FablesThese are stories that teach a lesson or have a moral usually stated at the endThe main characters of fables are usually animals with human characteristics(Anthropomorphism)Characters must overcome obstacles or pass challenges
6 Examples of FablesTortoise and the HareLion and the Mouse
7 Elements of Fairytales Usually has a hero or heroineHas magic/magical creaturesOften begins with “Once upon a time” or “Long, long ago…”Conflicts are resolved through kindness, courage or intelligenceEnd with “…happily ever after”“Underdog” usually wins
8 Examples of Fairy Tales CinderellaSleeping BeautyAladdin
9 Elements of LegendsRefer to individuals, heroes, or kings who lived in a period before written record.Based on facts, but changed to make it more interesting(Hyperbole)
11 Elements of MythsReveal values of the society for which they were created.Explain WHY something is as it isExplains HOW something came to be and it usually explains something in nature (creation myths/hero myths)Feature gods or other beings with supernatural powers
12 Examples of MythsPerseus and MedusaTheseus and the Minotaur
13 What elements do they all have in common? 1. Characters are not well-developedFlat characters(no change)Cardboard characters(Prince= rescuer, Owl=wise, Princess= helpless, witch=evil)2. Predictable PlotsUnhappy/Unfortunate StartTests/Trials along the way Happy Ending3. All questions are answered at the end Morals / Themes / Messages
14 They all share common themes Characters go through tests to prove something (the good character must solve a problem)Good versus Evil (has characters that good, others are bad)Good is rewarded and Evil is punished in the end (tales have a happy ending)