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Elicited behavior, Habituation, and Sensitization.

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1 Elicited behavior, Habituation, and Sensitization

2 Non-Associative Learning/Behavior Elicited behavior - reflex, modal action pattern. Repeated stimulation - habituation, sensitization. Emotional behavior - pattern of affective dynamics.

3 Elicited Behavior Reflex - Response elicited by a specific stimulus. Salivation, knee jerk, etc.

4 Elicited Behavior Modal Action Pattern (MAP) – Orderly sequence of reflexive behaviors. Concept put forth by ethologists Tinbergen and Lorenz. Species typical behavior, e.g., feeding, mating, social behaviors, etc. Elicited by complex array or sequence of stimuli. Elicitation can depend on motivation (“action-specific energy”) Evolutionarily important behaviors, “instinctive”

5 Modal Action Pattern Video of egg retrieval in goose What is the sign stimulus?

6 MAPs in Humans? Lorenz claimed that caring for young (and the associated affective responses) are MAPs. The sign stimuli are: –Head large in proportion to the body –Protruding forehead large in proportion to the size of the rest of the face –Large ears and eyes below the midline of the head –Small nose –Short thick extremities –Rounded body shape –Soft elastic body surfaces –Round protruding cheeks



9 Stephen Jay Gould on the evolution of Mickey Mouse

10 Supernormal stimulus An accurate 3-dimensional model of a herring gull's head (a), and a 'supernormal' bill (b).

11 Supernormal stimulus

12 Supernormal stimuli? v.

13 Repeated stimulation

14 Sensitization effect Increased response with repeated stimulation. Elicited behavior is not plastic, but can change with repeated stimulation. Habituation effect Decreased response with repeated stimulation.

15 Habituation effect Trials Response

16 Habituation movie Rat hears a series of loud bursts of noise

17 Dishabituation

18 Dishabituation effect Trials Response

19 Dishabituation movie Rat hears a series of loud high-pitched noises, Followed by a loud lower-pitched noise, Followed by another series of loud high-pitched noises

20 Spontaneous recovery Trials Response Retention Interval

21 Location of habituation processes Sensory adaptation Fatigue Habituation

22 Sometimes the habituated response will not recover after for a long time. (Long Term Habituation) How is habituation different from sensory adaptation and fatigue?

23 Habituation will be slower for stimuli which have a higher salience (i.e., intensity)

24 Dishabituation following the presentation of a novel stimulus.

25 Generalization gradient of a habituated response.

26 Short-Term v. Long-Term Habituation Leaton (1976) Days 1 - 11Day 12Day 13

27 Sensitization effect Trials Response

28 Sensitization In general Sensitization effects can be influenced by similar parameters as habituation. Sensitization can be thought of as “arousal”. However, generalization is greater in Sensitization. - Following exposure to cutaneous pain, rats’ reactivity to a wide range of auditory stimuli is increased.

29 Sensitization “arousal” effect Sensitization Movie

30 Habituation and Sensitization in Aplysia













43 Sensitization Pathway Increased serotonin release

44 2 underlying processes exist –1) A Habituation process –2) A Sensitization process Dual-Process theory of Habituation and Sensitization The habituation effect is observed when the habituation process is greater than the sensitization process. The observable behavior is the sum of these two processes.

45 Dual Process examples Habituation effect Sensitization effect

46 Groves and Thompson (1970) S-R System: Habituation is thought to occur in the reflex arc. State System: Sensitization is thought to occur in the part of the nervous system that determines general responsiveness.

47 Infant attention

48 Trials Looking Time

49 Emotional responses

50 Opponent Process Theory of Motivation

51 Changes in complex emotional responses Explains: Drug addiction – tolerance and withdrawal (?) Marriage – boredom and bereavement

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