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Prior to conditioning Neutral stimulus (tone) (Orientation to sound but no response) UCS (food powder in mouth) UCR (salivation) Conditioning Neutral stimulus.

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Presentation on theme: "Prior to conditioning Neutral stimulus (tone) (Orientation to sound but no response) UCS (food powder in mouth) UCR (salivation) Conditioning Neutral stimulus."— Presentation transcript:

1 Prior to conditioning Neutral stimulus (tone) (Orientation to sound but no response) UCS (food powder in mouth) UCR (salivation) Conditioning Neutral stimulus CS (tone) UCS (food powder) + CR (salivation) After conditioning CS (tone) CR (salivation)

2 Watson & Raynor  Human fears can be acquired through Pavlovian conditioning. Rat paired with loud noise Stimulus generalized to other white objects (white rabbit, white fur coat)  Mary Cover Jones developed a technique for eliminating conditioned fears. Acquisition of fear-inhibiting response

3 Modification of Instinctive Behavior Chapter 2

4 Instinctive Systems  Lorenz & Tinbergen – evolution occurs when a species incorporates environmental knowledge into its genetic structure. Greylag goose and egg-rolling.  Learning can sometimes modify instinctive behavior – even though the fixed action patterns are innate.

5 Energy Model  Action-specific energy builds up but is blocked (inhibited).  The energy motivates appetitive (approach) behavior.  Presence of a sign stimulus releases the energy by stimulating an innate releasing mechanism.  The behavior occurs as a fixed action pattern (or chain of actions).

6 Releasing Signs  Releasing signs can be complex: Grayling butterfly signs include darkness of female, distance from male, and pattern of movement.  Intensity of the sign influences the behavior but so does the amount of accumulated energy (time since the last response).

7 Hierarchical System  Specific behaviors are controlled by a central instinctive system.  Energy can accumulate at each level in the system. Hormones generate energy.  Release of energy at higher levels flows to lower levels.  The sign stimulus determines which behavior will occur.

8 Conflicting Motives  If two incompatible signs appear at the same time, energy flows to a third instinct system.  This third behavior is called displacement.

9 Conditioning Affects Behavior  Conditioning experiences can change sensitivity to releasing signs. Only the consummatory response at the end of a chain cannot be changed.  Conditioning fine tunes the response to the environment and enhances survival.

10 Criticisms of the Energy Model  Best viewed as a metaphor.  The brain does not literally accumulate energy in any centers and nothing flows.  Willows & Hoyle – alternating contractions in sea slug allow it to escape from a starfish. Brain areas producing this response do not correspond to energy model.

11 Acquired Changes in Response  Habituation – response to a repeated stimulus decreases with experience.  Sensitization – response to a repeated stimulus increases with experience.  Examples: Ingestional neophobia, fear of new food Startle response

12 Experimental Evidence  Rats drink little saccharin water at first but increase over time.  Loud tones (110 db) produce different responses depending on the background noise (60 vs 80 db). Habituation occurred at 60 db Sensitization occurred at 80 db A loud background is arousing, leading to greater reactivity, not less.

13 Conditions Producing Change  More intense (stronger) stimuli produce stronger sensitization, less likely to produce habituation.  Greater sensitization and habituation occur when the stimulus is repeated frequently.  Changes in the stimulus prevent habituation. Turkeys respond to shape changes.

14 Conditions (Cont.)  Sensitization can occur to many kinds of stimuli but habituation occurs only with innate responses.  Habituation and sensitization are transient (go away after seconds or minutes between stimuli). Except long-term habituation.  Dishabituation – response returns when a sensitizing stimulus occurs.

15 Opponent-Process Theory  An explanation for addictions.  All experiences produce an affective reaction (pleasant or unpleasant) – A state.  This reaction gives rise to its opposite – B state. B state is less intense and lasts longer.  Over time, the A state diminishes and the B state increases.

16 The Addiction Process  Tolerance – diminished A state.  Withdrawal – increased B state.  Addictive behavior is a coping response to the change in B state. People try to enhance A state to offset the unpleasantness of the B state. Without withdrawal symptoms there is no addictive behavior. Time prevents B state strengthening.

17 What Sustains Addiction?  The B state is a non-specific aversive feeling. Anything similarly aversive will motivate the addictive behavior, even if it has no relation to the substance. Daily life stress produces a B state that results in behavior to create an A state.  Parachute jumpers – create a B state in order to feel the A state.


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