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1 Médecins Sans Frontières / Doctors Without Borders (MSF) UK
Famine and Feast Life on the margins: the inequality of food and nutrition security FOOD AND NUTRITION (IN)SECURITY PowerPoint presentation by Médecins Sans Frontières / Doctors Without Borders (MSF) UK Schools Team: Mary Doherty and Severa von Wentzel March 2014


3 Food security and insecurity
Food security: a situation that exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life. Based on this definition, four security dimensions can be identifies: food availability, economic and physical access to food, food utilisation and stability over time. Food insecurity A situation that exists when people lack secure access to sufficient amounts of safe and nutritious food for normal growth and development and an active and health life. IT may be caused by the unavailability of food, insufficient purchasing power, inappropriate distribution or inadequate use of food at the household level. Food insecurity, poor conditions of health and sanitation and inappropriate care and feeding practices are the major causes of poor nutritional status. Food insecurity may be chronic, seasonal or transitory. Clip on food insecurity Source: FAO “Undernourishment around the world”,; Source: Note for teachers: Highlight to students that these FAO dimensions of food security could be a very useful framework for structuring a report in the examination.

4 Nutrition security Nutrition security is a tributary of food security. People need enough to eat and they need enough of the right kind of foods when they need them. That is, nutrient needs are met for each individual according to their needs, and nutrient needs vary through the life cycle. Since the nutritional needs vary by age, gender, whether pregnant/breast feeding , nutrition security must be analysed either individual by individual or at least by vulnerable group: pregnant and breast feeding women, infants 0-6 months, infants 6-23 months, adolescent girls, adolescent boys to a lesser extent, and individuals with chronic illness. Vulnerability is both socio-economic (less economic power) and physiologic (higher nutrient demands): for example, a poor 18-month-old child is more vulnerable than a poor 18-year-old adult. Nutrition security combines food security with sanitary environment, adequate health services and proper care and feeding practices.

5 Dimensions of food security (FAO)
Food security is a complex concept. It has four pillars and many indicators. There are complex correlations between the many parameters. Note for teachers: Highlight to students that these FAO dimensions of food security could be a very useful framework for structuring a report in the examination Teacher resource slide: The suite of food security indicators AND Correlation matrix of key food security indicators Further info and source: FAO “Undernourishment around the world”,; An introduction to the basic concepts of Food Security

6 Food Security Risk The Maplecroft Food Security Risk Index measures quality and safety, affordability and availability. The Food Security Index map is similar to the Maplecroft. The Famine Early Warning Systems Network works at a finer scale than Maplecroft. Further info “Food is the ultimate security need, new map shows” About FEWS: Maps Maplecroft Map Risk Index 2013 Food security Index map 2013 Interactive chart:

7 Maplecroft Food Security Risk Index
Note to teachers: This Index is based on the FAO four pillars. As an action for students, they could highlight and number the ten countries at greatest risk of food insecurity on the Maplecroft Index K

8 FAO food security dimensions
Availability Access FOOD FAO food security dimensions Utilisation Stability The dimensions are still framed as a problem of under-consumption, an outdated paradigm, rather than one of growing malnutrition. Hunger and obesity are often flip-sides of the same malnutrition coin. Hunger and obesity can be symptoms of poverty. A key link between hunger and obesity is the scarcity of healthy options (e.g., fresh fruits and vegetables) and factors related to poverty in low-income areas. Utilisation does refer to health in the sense of nutrition, but the dimensions do not mention the environment or sustainability. Major reports* on food security do mention the environment and sustainability and share a common sense of urgency about environmental, economic, socio-cultural trends and pressures, but write little on health. *E.g., IAASTD/World Bank & FAO (2008); Chatham House (2008); FAO HighLevel Task Force (2008); French Agrimonde (2010); UK Foresight (2011) Source: “Food Security and Sustainability: One Can’t Make an Omelette Without Cracking Some Eggs”

9 Eco-nutrition security
There is growing recognition that the international focus should move from food security not just to nutrition security, but ultimately to eco-nutrition security. The term and concept captures the relationship between food, human health, environment, agriculture and economic development. Eco-nutrition focuses on Total diet Verifiable standards Sustainability Seasonality Full-cost accounting including the economic, social and environmental costs

10 Adequate food “The concept of adequate food is an important part of the current definition of household food security. Clearly, what is adequate for one member is not adequate for another. A person's requirements for different nutrients depend on many factors including age, sex, level of activity and physiological status. However, adequacy of diets should not be considered only in quantitative terms (i.e. caloric sufficiency), but also in qualitative terms (i.e. variety, safety and cultural acceptability). Several major conditions define an adequate diet, necessary for an individual to stay active and healthy: It should provide adequate energy and protein. It should provide micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) in sufficient quantities to maintain good health. It should be safe and free from contaminants, parasites and toxins which may be injurious to health. It should be culturally acceptable and, in addition, should satisfy the palate and be capable of providing pleasure to the consumer.” (FAO

11 Stability of household food supply
“Stability of household food supplies refers to the ability of a household to procure, through income, production and/or transfers, adequate food supplies on a continuing basis, even when the household is faced with situations of unpredictable stress, shocks or crises. Such situations could include crop failure resulting from drought, market fluctuations such as sudden price rises, the decline or loss of employment and loss of productive capacity because of sudden illness. The concept also denotes an ability to stabilize food supplies through seasonal fluctuations of production or income. It also implies the household's ability to cope with or minimize the extent and duration of the effects of food deficits. The critical test of stability is the ability to bounce back or to regain quickly an adequate food supply For this to be a possibility, safety-net mechanisms are needed such as community grain stores or labour-intensive public works to support the purchasing power of the poor temporarily and to absorb the effects of short-term production or income losses that adversely affect the food supply of households.” (FAO

12 Access to food supply Household food security...depends not only on the availability of an adequate and sustainable supply of food, but also on the strategies employed by households for its acquisition. The ability of different households to establish access to the food supply can be considered both in terms of production and in terms of the people's ability to exchange their assets for food, for example through bartering, purchase or food-for-work. People's assets may include their income; their access to, use of and/or ownership of land; their livestock; their labour and the products of their labour; their inheritance; and gifts and transfers. The value of the exchange for individuals or households will vary with market forces, including wages and prices.(FAO

13 Food security model with ecology and sustainability
Model about how to provide the food, water and energy to sustain human health and social well-being whilst sustaining resources and the environment Teacher resource slide: Conceptual framework for food and nutrition security Source: Oshaug, A and L.Haddad “Nutrition and Agriculture”,

14 Factors affecting food security and sustainability
Direct causes Indirect root causes Economic Price volatility Externalised costs (cost of production or consumption off loaded onto third party) Energy reliance Socio-cultural Aspirations for more: rise of middle classes and changed food tastes Inequalities Globalisation Environmental Natural disasters (e.g., floods, drought), Land use Biodiversity: Water Climate change Health Malnutrition, non-communicable diseases, health care costs Factors affecting food security and sustainability Action for students: Place and group factors in the table. Some may fit more than one cause. Population growth; Inequality of: income, access, gender; Infrastructure and services Healthcare; Land security / tenure (e.g. land grabs); Source of food supply, food stocks, hoarding, waste; Governance, corruption, debt repayments, trade restrictions and subsidies; Conflict, IDPs, refugees; Degradation, desertification, deforestation, overcropping, overgrazing, urban sprawl, pests, pollution; The slides on factors of the global food crisis may be helpful. Note to teachers: Prompt students to consider the short-term and long-term aspects of the causes. Source: IAASTD / World Bank & FAO (2008) ; Source: “Food Security and Sustainability: One Can’t Make an Omelette Without Cracking Some Eggs” Edexcel Student Guide Unit 4, Option 3;

15 Household food insecurity and affected populations
Area of risk Households and people at risk Crop production (pests, drought, etc.) Smallholders with little income diversification and limited access to improved technology (e.g. improved seeds, fertilizer, irrigation, pest control) Landless term labourers Agricultural trade (disruption of exports or imports) Smallholders who are highly specialized in an export crop Small-scale pastoralists Poor households that are highly dependent on imported food Urban poor Food prices (large, sudden price rises) Poor, net food-purchasing households Employment Wage-earning households Informal-sector employees in pert-urban areas Informal-sector employees in rural areas when there is a sudden crop production failure Health (infectious diseases, for example, resulting in labour productivity decline) Entire communities, but especially those households that cannot afford preventive or curative care and vulnerable members of those households Politics and policy failure Households in war zones and areas of civil unrest Households in low-potential areas that are not connected to growth centres via infrastructure Demography (individual risks affecting large groups) Women, especially when they have little or no access to education Female-headed households Children at weaning age The elderly Source: FAO/WHO, 1992b.

16 Challenges to food and nutrition supply and security
Demographic challenges - Population growth, urbanisation, insecurity and conflict stemming from urban areas and mostly from developing countries will mean more demand for better food and need for good infrastructure and good governance (institutions, government capacity, security of property rights, functioning legal and tax system) Climate change is affecting food production patterns and may place regions and countries most vulnerable to food insecurity at even greater risk. Need for ecosystem perspective. Agriculture and bio fuel, a transport fuel made from biomass. US and EU mandates for ethanol production have contributed to increasing demands and are likely to continue pushing up food prices as they divert crops toward the production of fuel. Bio fuel has become more competitive player as a producer of energy and alternative outlet for agricultural production because of rising oil prices and concern for fuel emissions (Kyoto protocol). Food prices have been notably higher since 2000 than in the previous two decades, They continue to be volatile. Volatility and higher food prices lead poor households to consume food of lower nutritional value, entrenching them in a cycle of poor nutrition. Further info on policy responses to food price volatility: Source: Note to teachers: Summary slide, it may also be worth reminding students of the views of ‘the thinkers’ and linking them to the discussion of this summary slide. Teacher resource slides

17 Food insecurity factors in the UK (1)
Note for teachers: This and the next slide tie in with earlier work on the UK. Source:

18 Food insecurity factors in the UK (2)

19 Food insecurity factors in the drylands According to the UN Convention to Combat Desertification
Internal drivers: Inherent poor soil Water scarcity Land degradation Low growth on agricultural yields Population growth Poverty Gender Malnutrition Worsening factors: High prices on the commodity market Lack of investment Governance issues and land grabbing Lack of regional cooperation and conflicts Migration Climate change Note to teachers: a helpful slide which could be provided to students as a paper copy to annotate in the light of class discussion Further info and source:

20 Food security mind map Action for students:
Create your own mind map of all issues involved at global and local scales in food security using the previous slides for reference. Discuss food insecurity as chronic, temporary, sporadic or seasonal, rare/common to compare areas in terms of their vulnerability to food insecurity. Discuss why socio-economic factors often exert a very significant impact on the geography of food security; often more so than climate, soil or geographical factors? Explain why drylands can be food insecure, but also can be food secure and give examples. Note for teachers: It is worthwhile providing students with enough time to create these mind maps. It may be worthwhile to use some students mind maps as the basis of a class discussion on food security. The questions to guide this one are based on the examiner’s report. Note for students: The Jan 2010 exam question asked students to discuss management strategies at ‘all scales’ Examiners commented there was a lack of awareness of what is meant by ‘all scales’ Make sure you are aware!

21 More equitable regional and global trade
To meet the food and livelihood security needs of developing countries, establish more equitable regional and global trade arrangements to enable rural communities and developing countries; To address global equity and biodiversity issues, revise intellectual property laws toward a more equitable system with recognition of farmers’ rights to save and exchange seeds; To improve corporate accountability* and help ensure that public sector research responds to public interest goals, enforce strong codes of conduct to guide public-private partnerships; To help break up the monopoly control of the food system, establish and strengthen international competition rules and anti-trust regulations; to enforce labour standards and regulation To strengthen local and regional food systems, establish local policy councils. * Accountability making use of information to hold decision-makers to account for their actions and promises. Source: IAASTD Factsheet

22 DISASTERS: Natural and man-made

23 Humanitarian emergencies
Humanitarian emergencies are likely to affect more people in the coming decades for many reasons, including Rapid population growth, particularly in disaster-prone areas. Continued mass urbanisation, often unplanned and unsafe. Climate change and climate-related disasters because of its effects on sea levels, global rainfall and storm patterns – an estimated 375 million people will be affected every year by 2015 compared to 263 million in 2010. Teacher resource slides: Fragile states, protracted crises AND Protracted crises, agriculture and rural economy AND State Fragility Index

24 Image: Francesco Zizola

25 Hazard, Disaster or Emergency
A hazard is natural or human-made event that adversely affects human life, property or activity. Meteorological hazards make up most of the natural hazard events. In addition to the rise in weather-related natural hazards, more reporting thanks to better communication may make it seem like the frequency and destruction of natural hazards and disasters are increasing more than they actually are. “A disaster is an occurrence disrupting the normal conditions of existence and causing a level of suffering that exceeds the capacity of adjustment of the affected community.”(WHO/EHA 2002) Impacts can be direct or indirect; short or long-term; tangible or intangible; negative or positive. Caused by the impacts of disasters, whether man-made, natural or both, humanitarian emergencies call for urgent and immediate relief or aid. The can be complex with multiple effects and impacts. Impacts can be physical, social or economic. Note to teachers: This is a useful reminder/revision of terms for students

26 Impact of natural hazards on food security compounded by human factors
Note for teachers: It will be helpful to spend some time discussing this map as it provides a visual prompt to memory that students may be able to draw upon in the exam. It will support a conceptual approach to case study inclusion. Source:

27 The Impact of CLIMATE CHANGE on Food security

28 Climate change Climate change has wide-ranging impacts, including on water resources, agriculture and food security. It is a threat multiplier. Note for teachers: Examiners noted in their report of the June 2011 examination that ‘the role of climate change was often not well understood and often muddled with the role that desertification has in changing an area’s climate’ Image DOHA: CMP8-4.jpg; Image Falling off the scale up-less-response-greenhouse-gas-emissions;

29 The negative impact of climate change on food security
It affects food and nutrition security in that it makes: Natural disasters more frequent and intense Extreme weather-related disasters are bound to become more frequent and have a disproportionate toll on poor, weak and elderly people. Water scarcer and harder to access Changing rainfall patterns are likely to cause severe water shortages and/or flooding as well as accelerate land degradation. Melting of glaciers are likely to lead to flooding and soil erosion. Increases in productivity harder to achieve. Rising temperatures will cause shifts in crop growing seasons and to have a negative influence on yields and livestock numbers and productivity, which affect food security, and changes will place more people at risk from diseases. The effects of climate change are predicted to drive up prices of major food crops in many developing countries (UNDP 2007) Source: World Bank, “Adaptation to Climate Change in Agriculture and Natural Resource Management” Note for teachers: This and the next slide are very useful summary slides on the impact of climate change

30 UN intergovernmental panel on climate change report (IPCC)
“Nobody on this planet is going to be untouched by the impacts of climate change” - Rajendra Pachauri, chair of the IPCC. Growing risk of humanitarian crisis – Climate change cuts into global food supply, so raises the risk of rising food prices, food insecurity, political instability and conflict. Climate change has already diminished the global food supply with declining global crop yields especially for wheat, raising new concern about whether production can keep up with population growth. Climate change will make it harder for developing countries to emerge from poverty and will create "poverty pockets" in rich and poor countries. Source: The Guardian “Climate change a threat to security, food and humankind - IPCC report “;

31 IPCC of key impacts

32 Climate change and food and nutrition security
“Climate change impacts will disproportionately fall on people living in tropical regions, and particularly on the most vulnerable and marginalised population groups. This is the injustice of climate change – the worst of the impacts are felt by those who contributed least to causing the problem.“ - Robinson, the former Irish president ( Regions already sensitive to water shortages and extreme weather events have limited resources to cope with the impact of climate change and the added pressure of increasing populations. As soon as 2030 negative impacts of climate change on local food security for several crops and regions are expected to become significant with South Asia, Southern Africa, the West African Sahel and Brazil projected to be most affected. Action for students: Read about the effect of climate change on food security worldwide. Why are the poorest and most vulnerable most affected? The Guardian articles:

33 Agriculture and climate change
Agriculture is expected to be affected most by climate change, which is in turn affected in part by our consumption choices. (see WWF clip on the effect of our choices on climate change and resources The causes of climate change are largely man-made: Increased emissions of greenhouse gases because of burning of fossil fuels Deforestation of rainforests Methane from agriculture and nitrous oxide emissions (mostly from nitrogen losses from fertilisers and manure) “Modern farms produce particulate matter and gases that affect the environment and human health and add to rising atmospheric greenhouse-gas levels. European policymakers have made progress in controlling these emissions, but US regulations remain inadequate.” A Meat Eater’s Guide to Climate Change and Health by Environmental Working Group

34 Projected change in agricultural production due to climate change
“Climate change affects agricultural production through its effects on the timing, intensity and variability of rainfall and shifts in temperatures and carbon dioxide concentrations” (Guardian Apr ) Note for teachers: It will be helpful to discuss this projection and the implications for food security and food supply. You could discuss which countries benefit and which lose out compared to which countries contributed most to global warming. Generally, the LEDCs contributed leastto global warming yet are experiencing the greatest decline in agricultural production. Source: Source:

35 Food security in the face of climate change
Action for students: Read the executive summary and make a note of how different issues are linked

36 Climate change: Africa, Asia and Oceania
Notes for teachers: The three maps in this section will be very helpful summary sheets for students on climate change-discuss with them the linking to food issues of climate change. Further info and source:

37 Impact of climate change, vulnerability and adaptive capacity: Asia
Source: OECD “Poverty and Climate change”,

38 Impact of climate change, vulnerability and adaptive capacity: Africa
Source: OECD “Poverty and Climate change”,

39 Potential impacts of climate change on MDGs (1)
Source: OECD “ Poverty and Climate change”,

40 Potential impacts of climate change on MDGs (2)
Source: OECD “ Poverty and Climate change”,

41 The impact of CONFLICT on food and nutrition security

42 Fragile states Protracted crises
Fragile States “fundamental failure of the state to perform functions necessary to meet citizens’ basic needs and expectations. Fragile states are commonly described as incapable of assuring basic security, maintaining rule of law and justice, or providing basic services and economic opportunities for their citizens” ( Protracted crisis are “those environments in which a significant proportion of the population is acutely vulnerable to death, disease and disruption of livelihoods over a prolonged period of time. The governance of these environments is usually very weak, with the state having a limited capacity to respond to, and mitigate, the threats to the population, or provide adequate levels of protection.” (‎) Source and images:

43 Fragile states (2) Fragile states and protracted crises require special and immediate attention as well as long-term responses to protect and promote people’s livelihoods, support institutions and improve food security.

44 Protracted crises, agriculture and rural economy
In protracted crises, investment of aid in agriculture and the rural economy is especially important to support key sectors for supporting livelihoods to support immediate needs and address structural issues. Source: Groundswell International “Escaping the hunger cycle: Pathways to resilience in the Sahel”,

45 Fragile states “By 2030 nearly two thirds of the world’s poor will be living in states now deemed “fragile” (like Congo and Somalia). Much of the rest will be in middle income countries. This poses a double dilemma for donors: middle income countries do not really need aid, while fragile states cannot use it properly.” “Briefing Poverty: Not always with us”, The Economist, June1st 2013, “In Somalia, Ethiopia and Eritrea, human failings mean a severe drought has tipped millions into famine. It's a textbook case of why things go wrong. War begets poverty, leaving food unaffordable. Devastated infrastructure destroys both food production and the ability to truck in emergency food. The collapse of society means the effects of extreme weather such as drought cannot be dealt with. And the fear of violence turns people into refugees, leaving their livelihoods and social networks behind.” ( ) Teacher resource slides: Protracted crises and food insecurity

46 State Fragility Index 2011 Image:

47 Countries in protracted crisis
Action for students: Read FAO’s “Countries in protracted crisis: what are they and why do they deserve special attention?” 2. What are the common features? 3. How are women and men affected differently?

48 MSF often works in war zones
MSF often works in war zones. This child is talking to a MSF doctor in Gaza. MSF treats grown ups and children in dangerous places all over the world. Wars can cause all kinds of harm, including psychological harm. People can suffer from the experiences they had to endure. In many war zones MSF offers counselling to people who have lived through war. Talking about the difficult things they have seen can help make people feel better. © Valerie Babize/MSF [Gaza] 2008

49 Protracted crises and food insecurity

50 Note for teachers: You may want to select three or four regions to look at this data closely. It is a good opportunity to check students understand and can recall the definitions and also the GHI Source: FAO Countries in protracted crisis: what are they and why do they deserve special attention?

51 Crisis threshold, unrest and conflict
“The big threats over the coming decade are the ones we already face: conflict first and foremost, a variety of natural disasters, and major macroeconomic disruptions. The climate scientists don’t talk seriously of change over the course of a decade.” - Christopher Barrett Further info and Sources: World Bank Food Price Watch The Guardian “Food riot fear after rice price hits high”, 6 April 2008,

52 Conflict, refugees and food insecurity
Action for students: In Southern Sudan, by the Congolese border, MSF teams assist tens of thousands of Congolese refugees and internally displaced Sudanese fleeing violent attacks by Ugandan rebel group, the Lords Resistance Army (LRA). Look at Photographer Brendan Bannon’s reflections on his visit to the area, 25 August, 2011, 5m24s; Watch a month in focus on the refugee crisis in Southern Sudan 3. Watch Franco Pagetti's film "The Malnutrition that Shouldn't Be" which shows the daily struggle to survive in Congo's North Kivu region, where conflict is making food fatally scarce Note for teachers: You may want to discuss this double dilemma with students. You may also want to direct students to record from the reflections of the photographer's visit and the focus on the refugee crisis in Southern Sudan

53 Conflict and drought hotspots
Note to teachers: The study ( can identify four climate induced developments that could influence future conflict risk. These are typical causal linkages at the interface of environment and society, which can lead to social destabilisation and potentially violence, and are analysed independently in other parts of this document. They are: degradation of freshwater resources; decline in food production; increase in cyclone and flood disasters; and environmentally induced migration. One such linkage could act upon human vulnerability and latent conflict risk to trigger or exacerbate conflict. As an example of an attempt to identify areas where such an interaction could occur, Figure 12 shows where our drought risk hotspots intersect with areas considered to be at high and extreme risk of conflict. We consider drought (and in turn its effects on water and food security) the most likely climate related hazard that might play a part in conflict Source:

54 Stranded in the Sahel: Mali and Mauritania
Action for students: Use the resources below to add to or construct a fact sheet for a mini case study of food production, food security, food supply, and the impact of desertification in the Sahel. Compare your fact sheet with a partner, amend your fact sheet if appropriate Stranded in the Desert: Conflict in Mali affects Sahel region Africa Sahel belt region faces 'desperate food crisis‘

55 Refugee camp: Dadaab, Kenya
The Dadaab camps, in Kenya’s north-eastern province, were established 20 years ago to shelter refugees fleeing violence in neighbouring Somalia. Dadaab holds the shameful title of the largest refugee camp in the world. Envisaged as a temporary solution to house refugees from Somalia’s civil war, the Dadaab refugee camps are now 20 years old, and have become a permanent home for the majority of those who have sought shelter there. In Dagahaley – one of the five camps of Dadaab – hunger is still a daily reality for many refugees. In one of MSF’s health posts, hundreds of people have come to get medical assistance. Years of living without a functioning health system in Somalia have left their mark. Action for students: Watch the clip on the refugee camp. Make notes on the long journey of the refugees. Also available as a report:

56 Somalia's refugees arrive in Kenya
Most families fleeing Somalia arrive exhausted, hungry, and with little to no belongings after making sometimes a month-long journey often on foot Photos: Lynsey Addario/VII

57 Make shift shelter Further info:
A typical Somali refugee dwelling stands in a makeshift settlement on the outskirts of the Dagahaley Refugee Camp in Dadaab, Kenya. Severe overcrowding in the camp, and the influx of Somali refugees every day has given rise to informal camps, many of which lack basic services. Photo: Brendan Bannon Lynsey Addario/VII Further info: Testimonies from Somalia: Photo: Michael Goldfarb

58 Note for teachers: Discuss this resource with students
Note for teachers: Discuss this resource with students. It can be found on the MSF website. MSF resource

59 Teacher resource slides

60 Conceptual framework for food and nutrition security
Action for students: Discuss this framework and annotate it keeping in mind Places, People and Power .

61 Source:

62 Source:

63 Impact of natural hazards on food security compounded by human factors
Note for teachers: It will be helpful to spend some time discussing this map as it provides a visual prompt to memory that students may be able to draw upon in the exam. It will support a conceptual approach to case study inclusion. Source:

64 Source: http://documents. wfp

65 Source: http://www. fao

66 MSF: Contact us or find out more
Visit our website: About MSF: us: Find us on facebook: Follow us on Twitter: Follow us on You tube: The MSF movement was awarded the 1999 Nobel Peace Prize.  Contents

67 . .

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