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1.2. Food Security Fundamentals Food Security Cluster Needs Assessment Workshop Dhaka, Bangladesh 19 – 20 February 2012.

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Presentation on theme: "1.2. Food Security Fundamentals Food Security Cluster Needs Assessment Workshop Dhaka, Bangladesh 19 – 20 February 2012."— Presentation transcript:

1 1.2. Food Security Fundamentals Food Security Cluster Needs Assessment Workshop Dhaka, Bangladesh 19 – 20 February 2012

2 Session Objectives After this session, participants should be able to: Define a number of key food security concepts, including availability, access, utilisation, stability, livelihoods, coping, and resilience Explain the chief differences between chronic and transitory food insecurity Identify the key components of the food and nutrition security conceptual framework

3 Food Security defined… Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life [World Food Summit Plan of Action, paragraph 1, 1996]

4 The “Pillars” of Food Security

5 Availability the amount of food of appropriate quality physically present in the area, and is expected to become available in that area may be aggregated at the national, provincial, district or community level. Food availability is determined by: production: food produced in the area stocks: food held by traders, in government reserves [and at farm level] in the area trade: food brought into (and taken out of) the area through market mechanisms bulk transfers: food brought into the area by the government and/or aid agencies

6 Access (of households in specific population groups) The ability of households (in specific population groups ) to regularly acquire adequate amounts of appropriate food for a nutritious diet Means of access may include: own production – of crops, livestock or farmed fish hunting, fishing or gathering wild foods purchases at markets, shops, etc. barter exchange – exchange of items for food gifts from friends, relatives, community, transfers from government or aid agencies (relief or safety net programmes), food-for-work, cash/vouchers, etc.

7 Utilisation The use that households make of the food to which they have access, and individuals’ ability to absorb and metabolize the nutrients. Food utilization depends on: how food is stored, processed and prepared (including the water and cooking fuel available, and hygiene practices) feeding practices, particularly for special needs individuals: the young & elderly; the sick; pregnant & lactating women sharing of food within the household; the extent to which this meets individuals’ nutritional needs – growth, pregnancy, lactation, etc. health status of each household member

8 Stability consistency and reliability of food availability and access Stability means households should not risk losing access to food as a consequence of sudden shocks or cyclical events.

9 Livelihoods the capabilities, assets, and activities required for a means of living linked to survival and (future) well-being. Livelihood strategies are the practical means or activities through which people access food and other necessaries, or income to buy them. Coping activities that people resort to temporarily in order to obtain food, income and/or services when their normal means of livelihood have been disrupted Resilience the capacity to withstand and recover from food security shocks

10 10 impact of shock on human, financial, social, physical, & natural, assets (agricultural, livestock, etc. impact of policies, institutions, other processes strategies the affected are using to survive … tries to determine likely outcomes for the affected: changes in vulnerability, food / nutrition security status, etc. A livelihoods approach examines:

11 Chronic Food Insecurity A long-term or persistent inability to meet minimum food requirements Without appropriate attention, can lead to: STUNTING Transitory Food Insecurity A short-term or temporary inability to meet minimum food requirements, indicating a capacity to recover Without appropriate attention, can lead to: WASTING Temporal aspects of food insecurity

12 Temporal aspects & severity of food insecurity

13 Negative synergies between chronic & transitory food insecurity Transitory can become chronic: ▫ repeated crises can lead households towards chronic food insecurity Moderate chronic can become severe chronic: ▫ Households in chronic food insecurity are more vulnerable to deterioration due to crisis, compared to those who are in transitory food insecurity

14 Impact of crises on resilient households Exposure to shocks

15 Impact of crises on vulnerable households

16 Food & Nutrition Security Conceptual Framework: Key Concepts   Livelihoods   Food security   Nutrition security

17 Food and Nutrition Security Conceptual Framework

18 Productive Resources Formal & Informal Infrastructure Political Ideology Immediate Underlying Basic Malnutrition Inadequate Food Intake Disease Household Food Security Social & Care Environment Access to Health Care & Health Environment Causes Focuses on causal analysis: as in the UNICEF Malnutrition Framework

19 19 Conceptual Framework: levels of analysis (1) Basic causes: structural factors that establish the context in which malnutrition and food insecurity exist

20 20 Underlying causes: characteristics of individual households that make them more, or less, susceptible to malnutrition and food insecurity Conceptual Framework: levels of analysis (2)

21 Conceptual Framework: levels of analysis (3) Immediate causes: factors that can lead directly to malnutrition and death

22 22 Conceptual Framework: levels of analysis (4) Outcomes: malnutrition and excess mortality arising from failure to resolve problems at other levels

23 Wrap-up Food security = stable food availability, access and utilisation Distinguishing between chronic and transitory food security is important for understanding the potential impact of food security response options A livelihoods approach orients the planning and design of the assessment, as well as targeting the response options The food and nutrition security conceptual framework helps to guide the planning design of food security assessments


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