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Chapter 5: Ecosystems and the Physical Environment.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 5: Ecosystems and the Physical Environment."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Chapter 5: Ecosystems and the Physical Environment

3 The Atmosphere

4 The Atmosphere

5 Hypothesis Gaea= Greek “goddess of Earth” or “mother” Earth. Gaea= Greek “goddess of Earth” or “mother” Earth. 1970’s; This theory proposed global self- regulation 1970’s; This theory proposed global self- regulation.

6 Hypothesis Example: Earth’s temperature has remained stable due to organisms fixing CO 2 into Calcium Carbonate CaCO 3 of shells. Corals, Crustacea…

7 Planetary Temperature as a Negative Feedback loop? Example: A thermostat only turns on when the temperature drops below the desirable temp. Once it reaches the correct temperature the heat turns off.

8 Energy and Matter

9 Do Now: Biogeochemical cycles Identify the five Biogeochemical cycles. Identify the five Biogeochemical cycles. Identify some major reactions that occur for each. Identify some major reactions that occur for each. Discuss their importance, be sure to include the interaction between biotic & abiotic factors. Discuss their importance, be sure to include the interaction between biotic & abiotic factors.

10 Biogeochemical cycles Interaction between biotic & abiotic. Interaction between biotic & abiotic. Transpiration, decomposition, Photosynthesis and respiration Transpiration, decomposition, Photosynthesis and respiration The recycling of materials to be used over & over again. The recycling of materials to be used over & over again. 5 examples are: 5 examples are: 1. Phosphorus cycle 2. Nitrogen cycle 2. Nitrogen cycle 3. Hydrologic cycle 4. Carbon cycle 5. Sulfur cycle

11 Do Now: Draw a simple carbon for your bioregion. Include all the relevant processes as well as the local / regional geographical features that are part of the cycle. Draw a simple carbon for your bioregion. Include all the relevant processes as well as the local / regional geographical features that are part of the cycle.

12 The Carbon-Cycle Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen are recycled through the environment by the processes of respiration and photosynthesis. Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen are recycled through the environment by the processes of respiration and photosynthesis. Carbon makes up0.038% of our atmosphere (CO2) Carbon makes up0.038% of our atmosphere (CO2) Oceanic Carbon Oceanic Carbon Carbonate (CO 3 2− ) Carbonate (CO 3 2− ) Bicarbonate H CO 3 − ) Bicarbonate H CO 3 − ) Dissolved organics from decay Dissolved organics from decay Sedimentary Rock Sedimentary Rock Limestone: Calcium carbonate CaCO 3 Limestone: Calcium carbonate CaCO 3

13 The Carbon-Cycle Atmospheric Carbon Atmospheric Carbon 0.038% of our atmosphere carbon dioxide CO % of our atmosphere carbon dioxide CO 2 Carbonic Acid (H 2 CO 3 ) Carbonic Acid (H 2 CO 3 ) Oceanic Carbon Oceanic Carbon Carbonate (CO 3 2− ) Carbonate (CO 3 2− ) Bicarbonate (HCO 3 − ) Bicarbonate (HCO 3 − ) Dissolved organics from decay Dissolved organics from decay Sedimentary Rock Sedimentary Rock Limestone: AKA Calcium carbonate: (CaCO 3 ) Limestone: AKA Calcium carbonate: (CaCO 3 )

14 The Carbon-Cycle 1. CO 2 + H 2 0  Carbonic Acid (H 2 CO 3 ) (combines in rainwater) 2. H 2 CO 3 -  HCO 3 − and H + (dissociates in soil) 3. H + (acidic) breaks down feldspar  Ca H 2 CO Ca 2+  CaCO 3 (in runoff combines) forming 5. CaCO 3 in runoff up taken and used by oceanic organisms 6. Organisms die, sedimentation occurs forming Limestone

15 Carbon Cycle

16 The Carbon cycle The Carbon-Cycle

17 C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 +6H 2 O  6CO H 2 O + 36ATP’s 6CO H 2 O + light  C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 +6H 2 O

18 Remember Photosynthesis ??

19 Respiration The transfer of stored energy in food molecules to a form usable by the organism. The transfer of stored energy in food molecules to a form usable by the organism. Involves the exchange of gases between the organism and the environment. Involves the exchange of gases between the organism and the environment.

20 Process Through the process of respiration, the organism produces adenosine triphosphate (ATP) which will be used for energy. Through the process of respiration, the organism produces adenosine triphosphate (ATP) which will be used for energy.

21 Respiration Respiration- is an organisms’ ability to create energy. (ATP ) Respiration Aerobic Respiration Anaerobic Respiration Alcoholic Fermentation Lactic Acid Fermentation

22 1. Cellular Respiration Involves a series of enzyme- controlled reactions in which energy in food is broken down into energy that the organism can use (ATP) Involves a series of enzyme- controlled reactions in which energy in food is broken down into energy that the organism can use (ATP)

23 a) When ATP is broken down, energy is released and ADP is formed ADP = adenosine diphosphate ADP = adenosine diphosphate H 2 O + ATP  ADP + P + energy H 2 O + ATP  ADP + P + energy This is the energy used by the body to carry out the functions of life This is the energy used by the body to carry out the functions of life

24 Types of Respiration 1. Aerobic Respiration -involves the use of oxygen -involves the use of oxygen 2. Anaerobic Respiration -oxygen is not used -oxygen is not used

25 Anaerobic Respiration Also known as Fermentation Also known as Fermentation Does not require oxygen Does not require oxygen Takes place in the cytoplasm of cell Takes place in the cytoplasm of cell Glucose is either broken down into lactic acid or alcohol and CO 2 Glucose is either broken down into lactic acid or alcohol and CO 2 As a result of anaerobic respiration, there is a net gain of 2 ATP’s As a result of anaerobic respiration, there is a net gain of 2 ATP’s

26 Equations for Anaerobic Respiration glucose  2 lactic acids + 2 ATP’s glucose  2 lactic acids + 2 ATP’s glucose  2 alcohol + 2 CO ATP’s glucose  2 alcohol + 2 CO ATP’s In each equation, enzymes are used and a net gain of 2 ATP’s are produced In each equation, enzymes are used and a net gain of 2 ATP’s are produced

27 Aerobic Respiration Requires oxygen Requires oxygen Takes place in the mitochondria Takes place in the mitochondria When we say that glucose is oxidized, we say that it is broken down with the help of oxygen molecules When we say that glucose is oxidized, we say that it is broken down with the help of oxygen molecules

28 Summary Anaerobic Respiration = 2 ATP’s Anaerobic Respiration = 2 ATP’s Aerobic Respiration = 36 ATP’s Aerobic Respiration = 36 ATP’s Therefore, Aerobic respiration is more efficient than anaerobic respiration Therefore, Aerobic respiration is more efficient than anaerobic respiration

29 The Carbon-Cycle

30 Glycolysis

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36 Mitochondrion An oval membrane enclosed organelle in which most of the reactions of cellular respiration occur.

37 Aerobic Respiration (Net gain of ATP) 1)Glycolysis (2 ATP’s) 2)Krebs Cycle (2 ATP’s) 3)Electron Transport Chain (ETC) (32 ATP’s)

38 Nitrogen Cycle Nitrogen is needed by all living things because it is part of the structure of amino acids and proteins. Nitrogen is needed by all living things because it is part of the structure of amino acids and proteins. The Nitrogen cycle includes the following reactions nitrogen-fixation, nitrification, ammonification, and denitrification. The Nitrogen cycle includes the following reactions nitrogen-fixation, nitrification, ammonification, and denitrification. Humans have increased fixed nitrogen levels (smog, and acid rain HNO 3 = Nitric acid) Humans have increased fixed nitrogen levels (smog, and acid rain HNO 3 = Nitric acid)

39 Nitrogen Cycle In this cycle, nitrogenous wastes and the remains of dead organisms are converted by decomposers and soil bacteria into compounds that can be used by autotrophs. In this cycle, nitrogenous wastes and the remains of dead organisms are converted by decomposers and soil bacteria into compounds that can be used by autotrophs. 5 steps 5 steps 1. Nitrogen fixation N2  NH3 2. Nitrification 2. Nitrification NH3  NO2-  NO3- 3. Assimilation N-based compounds into tissues 4. Ammonification waste  NH3, NH+4, 5. Denitrification ( 5. Denitrification (NH3, NO2-, NO3-)  N2

40 The Nitrogen Cycle N2 Urea (NO2-, NO3-) NH3,

41 Nitrogen Cycle

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43 Nitrogen fixation Occurs in Legumes Roots (clover) N2  NH3 Nitrogen fixation Occurs in Legumes Roots (clover) N2  NH3 Nitrification: bacteria convert NH3  NO2-  NO3- Denitrification: Bacteria convert (Anaerobic nitrifying Bacteria) NH3  N2 NO2-  N2 NO3-  N2 Ammonification:  NH3, NH + 4, Ammonifying bacteria use animal wastes (urea and uric acid)

44 Nitrogen Cycle The Nitrogen cycle includes the following reactions: The Nitrogen cycle includes the following reactions: 1. Nitrogen Fixation: the conversion of N 2 to NH 3 (ammonia) by Nitrogen-fixing bacteria (Rhizobium in legume root nodules) as well as cyanobacteria (Anabaena & heterocysts). 1. Nitrogen Fixation: the conversion of N 2 to NH 3 (ammonia) by Nitrogen-fixing bacteria (Rhizobium in legume root nodules) as well as cyanobacteria (Anabaena & heterocysts). Nitrogen is “fixed” into a form that can be used. Bacteria use nitrogenase (shielded from O 2 ) to split N 2. Also lightning & volcanic activity.

45 Nitrogen Cycle 2. Nitrification: the conversion of ammonia NH 3 or ammonium NH 4 + to NO 3 -.(when water reacts with ammonia). 2. Nitrification: the conversion of ammonia NH 3 or ammonium NH 4 + to NO 3 -.(when water reacts with ammonia). Soil bacteria such as Nitrosomonas & Nitrococcus start NH 3 or ammonium NH 4 + to NO 2 - Soil bacteria such as Nitrosomonas & Nitrococcus start NH 3 or ammonium NH 4 + to NO 2 - Then Nitrobacter oxidizes NO 2 - to NO 3 -. Then Nitrobacter oxidizes NO 2 - to NO 3 -.

46 Nitrogen Cycle 3. Assimilation: the conversion of inorganic N (NO 3 -, NH 3, NH 4 + ) to organic molecules (amino acids & proteins). 3. Assimilation: the conversion of inorganic N (NO 3 -, NH 3, NH 4 + ) to organic molecules (amino acids & proteins).

47 Nitrogen Cycle 4. Ammonification: the conversion of organic N (amino acids & proteins) to NH 3 & NH 4 +, performed by Ammonifying bacteria. (Creating ammonia or ammonium) Conversion of Nitrogenous wastes:

48 Nitrogen Cycle

49 5. Denitrification: the conversion (reduction) of NO 3 - to N 2 performed by denitrifying bacteria.

50 The nitrogen cycle.

51 Nitrogen Cycle

52 The Nitrogen-Cycle

53 Do Now answer Explain the meaning of “nitrogen fixation.” Give a specific example of an organism capable of this process and discuss the relationship this organism has with plants. Explain the meaning of “nitrogen fixation.” Give a specific example of an organism capable of this process and discuss the relationship this organism has with plants.

54 Do Now answer Nitrogen fixation is the conversion of gaseous nitrogen to ammonia (NH3) by bacteria, Rhizobium, that live inside special swellings, or nodules on the roots of legumes such as beans or peas. The relationship is mutualistic. The bacteria receive carbohydrates from the plant, and the plant receives nitrogen in a form it can use. Nitrogen fixation is the conversion of gaseous nitrogen to ammonia (NH3) by bacteria, Rhizobium, that live inside special swellings, or nodules on the roots of legumes such as beans or peas. The relationship is mutualistic. The bacteria receive carbohydrates from the plant, and the plant receives nitrogen in a form it can use.

55 The Phosphorus-Cycle Nongaseous phosphorus cycles from land to sediments in the ocean and then back to land. Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for all life forms. Phosphorus plays a role in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), ribonucleic acid (RNA), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

56 The Phosphorus-Cycle

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58 In freshwater and marine systems exists in either a particulate phase or a dissolved phase. In freshwater and marine systems exists in either a particulate phase or a dissolved phase. Particulate matter includes living and dead plankton, precipitates of phosphorus, phosphorus adsorbed to particulates, and amorphous phosphorus. Particulate matter includes living and dead plankton, precipitates of phosphorus, phosphorus adsorbed to particulates, and amorphous phosphorus. Dissolved phase includes inorganic phosphorus (generally in the soluble orthophosphate form), organic phosphorus excreted by organisms, and macromolecular colloidal phosphorus. Dissolved phase includes inorganic phosphorus (generally in the soluble orthophosphate form), organic phosphorus excreted by organisms, and macromolecular colloidal phosphorus.

59 The Phosphorus-Cycle In freshwater and marine systems exists in either a particulate phase or a dissolved phase. In freshwater and marine systems exists in either a particulate phase or a dissolved phase. Particulate matter includes living and dead plankton & precipitates of phosphorus. Particulate matter includes living and dead plankton & precipitates of phosphorus.

60 The Phosphorus-Cycle

61 The Sulfur-Cycle

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63 Hydrologic Cycle

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65 Here water moves between the earth’s surface and the atmosphere. Here water moves between the earth’s surface and the atmosphere. Evaporation, Condensation, aerobic respiration and transpiration in plants. Evaporation, Condensation, aerobic respiration and transpiration in plants. Estuaries are areas where fresh water meets marine areas. Estuaries are areas where fresh water meets marine areas. Watersheds are large areas where runoff drains from the terrestrial to the marine environments. These areas filter the water as well. Watersheds are large areas where runoff drains from the terrestrial to the marine environments. These areas filter the water as well.

66 Hydrologic Cycle

67 The Hydrologic-Cycle The Effect of Aerosols?

68 DO NOW: Pick any one cycle and describe it as scientifically as possible….

69 DO NOW: Bacteria are key participants in the sulfur and nitrogen biogeochemical cycles. Briefly describe the role of oxygen in the various bacteria’s ability to process sulfur and nitrogen. Bacteria are key participants in the sulfur and nitrogen biogeochemical cycles. Briefly describe the role of oxygen in the various bacteria’s ability to process sulfur and nitrogen.

70 DO NOW: answers Bacteria drive both the sulfur and nitrogen cycles. In freshwater wetlands, tidal flats, and flooded soils, which are oxygen- deficient, bacteria convert sulfates to hydrogen sulfide gas, which is released into the atmosphere. Or the bacteria convert sulfates to metallic sulfides, which are deposited as rock. In the absence of oxygen, other bacteria perform an ancient type of photosynthesis that uses hydrogen sulfide instead of water. Where oxygen is present, different bacteria oxidize sulfur compounds to sulfates. Bacteria drive both the sulfur and nitrogen cycles. In freshwater wetlands, tidal flats, and flooded soils, which are oxygen- deficient, bacteria convert sulfates to hydrogen sulfide gas, which is released into the atmosphere. Or the bacteria convert sulfates to metallic sulfides, which are deposited as rock. In the absence of oxygen, other bacteria perform an ancient type of photosynthesis that uses hydrogen sulfide instead of water. Where oxygen is present, different bacteria oxidize sulfur compounds to sulfates. Bacteria that reside in the root nodules of legume plants have the ability to convert gaseous nitrogen to ammonia. These nitrogen- fixing bacteria, including cyanobacteria and Rhizobium, employ the enzyme nitrogenase to split diatomic atmospheric nitrogen (N2) and combine the resulting single nitrogen atoms with hydrogen. Nitrogenase functions only in the absence of oxygen. Bacteria that reside in the root nodules of legume plants have the ability to convert gaseous nitrogen to ammonia. These nitrogen- fixing bacteria, including cyanobacteria and Rhizobium, employ the enzyme nitrogenase to split diatomic atmospheric nitrogen (N2) and combine the resulting single nitrogen atoms with hydrogen. Nitrogenase functions only in the absence of oxygen.

71 DO NOW: List and briefly explain three ways in which human activities are impacting the biogeochemical cycles

72 Some Human Effects on Biochemical Cycles The burning of fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas release CO2 into the atmosphere at a rate greater than the carbon cycle can handle. This increase of carbon dioxide may contribute to global warming which could result in a rise in sea level, changes in precipitation patterns, death of forests, extinction of organisms and problems for agriculture. The burning of fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas release CO2 into the atmosphere at a rate greater than the carbon cycle can handle. This increase of carbon dioxide may contribute to global warming which could result in a rise in sea level, changes in precipitation patterns, death of forests, extinction of organisms and problems for agriculture. In addition, humans more than doubled the amount of fixed nitrogen entering the global nitrogen cycle in the 20th century through the use of chemical fertilizers. In addition, humans more than doubled the amount of fixed nitrogen entering the global nitrogen cycle in the 20th century through the use of chemical fertilizers. Precipitation washes nitrogen fertilizer into rivers, lakes and coastal waters stimulating the growth of algae. These algae die and their decomposition by bacteria robs the water of dissolved oxygen contributing to fish kills. The nitrates from fertilizer can also leach through the soil and contaminate groundwater used by many for drinking water. Precipitation washes nitrogen fertilizer into rivers, lakes and coastal waters stimulating the growth of algae. These algae die and their decomposition by bacteria robs the water of dissolved oxygen contributing to fish kills. The nitrates from fertilizer can also leach through the soil and contaminate groundwater used by many for drinking water. Humans affect the phosphorus cycle by accelerating the long-term loss of phosphorus from the land. For example, corn grown in Iowa (which contains phosphate absorbed from the soil), fattens cattle in Illinois (some phosphate ends up in feedlot wastes), which are eaten by humans in Texas (more phosphate in human wastes ending up in sewer systems). Sewage treatment rarely removes phosphorus and thus phosphorus washes into the ocean where it remains for millions of years. Humans affect the phosphorus cycle by accelerating the long-term loss of phosphorus from the land. For example, corn grown in Iowa (which contains phosphate absorbed from the soil), fattens cattle in Illinois (some phosphate ends up in feedlot wastes), which are eaten by humans in Texas (more phosphate in human wastes ending up in sewer systems). Sewage treatment rarely removes phosphorus and thus phosphorus washes into the ocean where it remains for millions of years.

73 Most of the energy produced by the sun never reaches the Earth.Most of the energy produced by the sun never reaches the Earth. 3 0% reflected into outerspace.3 0% reflected into outerspace. 47% is absorbed by the atmoshpere.47% is absorbed by the atmoshpere. 23% runs the hydrologic cycle.23% runs the hydrologic cycle. Less than 1% drives the wind and the ocean currents.Less than 1% drives the wind and the ocean currents. 0.02% is captured for photosynthesis.0.02% is captured for photosynthesis. Energy then is lost as infrared radiation (reradiation).Energy then is lost as infrared radiation (reradiation). II. Solar Radiation

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75 The Sun Albedo: The reflective property of the Earth’s surface. Caption and image courtesy of the Snowball Earth Web site: Ice albedo is a critical variable in snowball earth climate models: snow-covered ice has a high albedo (~0.9), bubble-free (mature) marine ice has relatively low albedo (~0.4) and bubble-rich glacial ice (compacted snow) has intermediate albedo (~0.65).Snowball Earth Web site

76 Glaciers and ice sheets reflect 80 to 90%Glaciers and ice sheets reflect 80 to 90% of the sunlight that hits their surfaces. of the sunlight that hits their surfaces. Asphalt and buildings have low Albedos and reflect 10 –15%.Asphalt and buildings have low Albedos and reflect 10 –15%. Oceans and forests reflect only about 5%.Oceans and forests reflect only about 5%.

77 IIa. Temperature changes with latitude *Due to intensity

78 IIb. Temperature changes with seasons (23.5 degrees)

79 Layers of the Atmosphere Troposhere: Troposhere: extends up to a height of approximately 10km (6.2mi). extends up to a height of approximately 10km (6.2mi). For every in the temperature- 6˚C For every in the temperature- 6˚C Weather occurs here Weather occurs here Stratosphere: Stratosphere: Mesosphere: Mesosphere: Thermosphere Thermosphere Exosphere: Exosphere:

80 III. The Atmosphere Layers of the Atmosphere Layers of the Atmosphere Atmospheric Circulation Atmospheric Circulation Surface winds Surface winds Coriolis Effect Coriolis Effect Prevailing winds Prevailing winds Polar easterlies: Polar easterlies: North pole blow Northeast, South pole southwest North pole blow Northeast, South pole southwest Westerlies and trade wins Westerlies and trade wins Patterns of Circulation in the ocean Patterns of Circulation in the ocean Gyres and Currents Gyres and Currents Vertical Mixing of Ocean Water (density) Vertical Mixing of Ocean Water (density) Ocean Interactions width the Atmosphere Ocean Interactions width the Atmosphere EL NIÑO, LA NIÑA EL NIÑO, LA NIÑA

81 Atmospheric Circulation Atmospheric Circulation Winds: complex horizontal movements of the atmosphere.

82 Atmospheric Circulation Atmospheric Circulation

83 Atmospheric & Oceanic Circulation Atmospheric & Oceanic Circulation Coriolis Effect: Earth’s rotation from West to East causes air/currents to swerve to the right of the direction in which its traveling in the northern hemisphere and to the left in the southern hemisphere. Coriolis Effect: Earth’s rotation from West to East causes air/currents to swerve to the right of the direction in which its traveling in the northern hemisphere and to the left in the southern hemisphere. Human change of Earth’s rotation?

84 Patterns of Circulation in the ocean Caused largely by winds and partly the coriolis effect. Caused largely by winds and partly the coriolis effect. Main ocean currents flow: Main ocean currents flow: Northern Hemisphere- clockwise Northern Hemisphere- clockwise Southern Hemisphere – counter clock wise Southern Hemisphere – counter clock wise Surface Ocean Currents Prevailing winds generate gyres (circular ocean patterns)Prevailing winds generate gyres (circular ocean patterns)

85 Landmasses affect ocean circulation. Which is most unimpeded? Northern Hemisphere Southern Hemisphere

86 Vertical Mixing of Ocean Water. Ocean Conveyor BeltOcean Conveyor Belt (Cold is denser then hot)(Cold is denser then hot) Coriolis effect more pronounced at greater depthsCoriolis effect more pronounced at greater depths What happened ,000 years ago?What happened ,000 years ago? Heat transfer issue???Heat transfer issue??? Unintentional link between global warming and ocean conveyor beltUnintentional link between global warming and ocean conveyor belt

87 Vertical Mixing of Ocean Water. Ocean Conveyor BeltOcean Conveyor Belt

88 Do Now: What is an ENSO event and what causes it to occur? (provide more then a decrease in trade winds) Please include in your discussion: What is an ENSO event and what causes it to occur? (provide more then a decrease in trade winds) Please include in your discussion: Define ENSO? Define ENSO? What is oscillating? What is oscillating? What effects does an ENSO event have on marine life? What effects does an ENSO event have on marine life? How does an ENSO even manage to have such far- reaching impact? How does an ENSO even manage to have such far- reaching impact?

89 Do Now Answer: El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a periodic, large-scale warming of surface waters of the eastern Pacific Ocean. This warming temporarily alters both ocean and atmospheric circulation patterns. El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a periodic, large-scale warming of surface waters of the eastern Pacific Ocean. This warming temporarily alters both ocean and atmospheric circulation patterns. Normally, westward-blowing trade winds confine the warmest waters to the western Pacific (near Australia). Every 3-7 years, however, these trade winds weaken allowing the warm mass of water to expand eastward to South America. Normally, westward-blowing trade winds confine the warmest waters to the western Pacific (near Australia). Every 3-7 years, however, these trade winds weaken allowing the warm mass of water to expand eastward to South America. The increasing surface temperatures in the East Pacific cause ocean currents, which normally flow westward in this area, to slow down, stop altogether, or even reverse and go eastward. The warmer surface ocean temperatures prevent upwelling of the nutrient-rich deep water. The increasing surface temperatures in the East Pacific cause ocean currents, which normally flow westward in this area, to slow down, stop altogether, or even reverse and go eastward. The warmer surface ocean temperatures prevent upwelling of the nutrient-rich deep water. The lack of nutrients in the water results in a severe decrease in the populations of marine fish. The lack of nutrients in the water results in a severe decrease in the populations of marine fish. ENSO has such a far-reaching impact because it alters global air currents, directing unusual weather to areas far from the tropical Pacific. ENSO have been responsible for torrential rains, droughts, wildfires, heavy snows, deaths and property damage. ENSO has such a far-reaching impact because it alters global air currents, directing unusual weather to areas far from the tropical Pacific. ENSO have been responsible for torrential rains, droughts, wildfires, heavy snows, deaths and property damage.

90 EL NIÑO (ENSO) EL NIÑO Southern Oscillation event is a periodic warming of surface waters of the tropical East Pacific that alters both ocean & atmospheric circulation. EL NIÑO Southern Oscillation event is a periodic warming of surface waters of the tropical East Pacific that alters both ocean & atmospheric circulation. Upwelling? Upwelling? LA NIÑA: surface water in the eastern Pacific becomes unusually cool.

91 EL NIÑO

92 Climate associated with ENSO

93 Coastal upwelling weakens during ENSO events.

94 Do Now: How does ENSO affect local fisheries? How does ENSO affect local fisheries?

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97 Animation Of An Idealized El Niño/La Niña Cycle in the Pacific showing anomalies of sea-surface height (the grid in the animation) and anomalies of sea-surface temperature (the color of the grid). The weakening of trades in the western equatorial Pacific causes warm water in the upper layer of the equatorial region to move eastward, leading to higher sea level and warmer water in the eastern equatorial Pacific. The wave of higher sea level (called a Kelvin wave) reflects off South America, and returns to the west at latitudes north and south of the equator. Animation Of An Idealized El Niño/La Niña Cycle in the Pacific showing anomalies of sea-surface height (the grid in the animation) and anomalies of sea-surface temperature (the color of the grid). The weakening of trades in the western equatorial Pacific causes warm water in the upper layer of the equatorial region to move eastward, leading to higher sea level and warmer water in the eastern equatorial Pacific. The wave of higher sea level (called a Kelvin wave) reflects off South America, and returns to the west at latitudes north and south of the equator. Animation Of An Idealized El Niño/La Niña Cycle Animation Of An Idealized El Niño/La Niña Cycle

98 Normally: Colder deep water is 40m (130ft) below surface causes upwelling in response to trade winds. Normally: Colder deep water is 40m (130ft) below surface causes upwelling in response to trade winds. ENSO: 152m (500ft) below surface ENSO: 152m (500ft) below surface The warmer surface temperatures and weak trade winds produce nutrient POOR waters devastating anchovies and other marine fisheries. The warmer surface temperatures and weak trade winds produce nutrient POOR waters devastating anchovies and other marine fisheries. Who now's who might be looking for food????? Who now's who might be looking for food????? Do Now answers:

99 ENSO flooding?

100 Climate: average weather conditions

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102 DO NOW: Explain what is a rain shadow and how does it affect the local climate? Explain what is a rain shadow and how does it affect the local climate?

103 DO NOW: ANSWER The dry land on the side of a mountain, away from the prevailing wind, is a rain shadow. Rain shadows are formed because mountains force air to rise and remove moisture from humid air. The air cools as it rises, clouds form, and precipitation occurs. The dry land on the side of a mountain, away from the prevailing wind, is a rain shadow. Rain shadows are formed because mountains force air to rise and remove moisture from humid air. The air cools as it rises, clouds form, and precipitation occurs. As the air mass moves down the other side of the mountain, it is warmed, thereby lessening the chance of precipitation of any remaining moisture. Deserts, characterized by lesser precipitation, tend form in this rain shadow of mountains. As the air mass moves down the other side of the mountain, it is warmed, thereby lessening the chance of precipitation of any remaining moisture. Deserts, characterized by lesser precipitation, tend form in this rain shadow of mountains.

104 Westcoast of America Rainshadow

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107 Earth’s Core

108 Divergent: Movement apart

109 The Richter Scale

110 Hotspo t Transform/Plate boundary Mt. Pinatubo

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112 Convergent/subduction

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114 Transform Plate Boundary horizontally in opposite but // directions.

115 Transform Plate Boundary horizontally in opposite but // directions. Ex: San Andreas fault


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