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Chapter 5: Ecosystems and the Physical Environment

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1 Chapter 5: Ecosystems and the Physical Environment

2 The Atmosphere

3 The Atmosphere

4 Hypothesis 1970’s; This theory proposed global self-regulation.
Gaea= Greek “goddess of Earth” or “mother” Earth.

5 Hypothesis Example: Earth’s temperature has remained stable due to organisms fixing CO2 into Calcium Carbonate CaCO3 of shells. Corals, Crustacea…

6 Planetary Temperature as a Negative Feedback loop?
Example: A thermostat only turns on when the temperature drops below the desirable temp. Once it reaches the correct temperature the heat turns off.

7 Energy and Matter

8 Do Now: Biogeochemical cycles
Identify the five Biogeochemical cycles. Identify some major reactions that occur for each. Discuss their importance, be sure to include the interaction between biotic & abiotic factors.

9 Biogeochemical cycles
Interaction between biotic & abiotic. Transpiration, decomposition, Photosynthesis and respiration The recycling of materials to be used over & over again. 5 examples are: 1. Phosphorus cycle 2. Nitrogen cycle 3. Hydrologic cycle 4. Carbon cycle 5. Sulfur cycle

10 Do Now: Draw a simple carbon for your bioregion. Include all the relevant processes as well as the local / regional geographical features that are part of the cycle.

11 The Carbon-Cycle Carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen are recycled through the environment by the processes of respiration and photosynthesis. Carbon makes up0.038% of our atmosphere (CO2) Oceanic Carbon Carbonate (CO3 2− ) Bicarbonate HCO3 − ) Dissolved organics from decay Sedimentary Rock Limestone: Calcium carbonate CaCO3

12 The Carbon-Cycle Atmospheric Carbon Oceanic Carbon Sedimentary Rock
0.038% of our atmosphere carbon dioxide CO2 Carbonic Acid (H2CO3) Oceanic Carbon Carbonate (CO3 2− ) Bicarbonate (HCO3 − ) Dissolved organics from decay Sedimentary Rock Limestone: AKA Calcium carbonate: (CaCO3)

13 The Carbon-Cycle CO2 + H20 Carbonic Acid (H2CO3)
(combines in rainwater) 2. H2CO3-  HCO3 − and H+ (dissociates in soil) 3. H+ (acidic) breaks down feldspar Ca2+ 4. H2CO Ca2+  CaCO3 (in runoff combines) forming 5. CaCO3 in runoff up taken and used by oceanic organisms 6. Organisms die, sedimentation occurs forming Limestone

14 Carbon Cycle

15 The Carbon-Cycle The Carbon cycle

16 The Carbon-Cycle C6H12O6 + 6O2 +6H2O  6CO2 + 12H2O + 36ATP’s
6CO2 + 12H2O + light  C6H12O6 + 6O2 +6H2O

17 Remember Photosynthesis ??

18 Respiration The transfer of stored energy in food molecules to a form usable by the organism. Involves the exchange of gases between the organism and the environment.

19 Process Through the process of respiration, the organism produces adenosine triphosphate (ATP) which will be used for energy.

20 Respiration Respiration- is an organisms’ ability to create energy. (ATP) Respiration Aerobic Respiration Anaerobic Respiration Alcoholic Fermentation Lactic Acid Fermentation

21 1. Cellular Respiration Involves a series of enzyme-controlled reactions in which energy in food is broken down into energy that the organism can use (ATP)

22 a) When ATP is broken down, energy is released and ADP is formed
ADP = adenosine diphosphate H2O + ATP  ADP + P + energy This is the energy used by the body to carry out the functions of life

23 Types of Respiration Aerobic Respiration -involves the use of oxygen
2. Anaerobic Respiration -oxygen is not used

24 Anaerobic Respiration
Also known as Fermentation Does not require oxygen Takes place in the cytoplasm of cell Glucose is either broken down into lactic acid or alcohol and CO2 As a result of anaerobic respiration, there is a net gain of 2 ATP’s

25 Equations for Anaerobic Respiration
glucose  2 lactic acids + 2 ATP’s glucose  2 alcohol + 2 CO2 + 2 ATP’s In each equation, enzymes are used and a net gain of 2 ATP’s are produced

26 Aerobic Respiration Requires oxygen Takes place in the mitochondria
When we say that glucose is oxidized, we say that it is broken down with the help of oxygen molecules

27 Summary Anaerobic Respiration = 2 ATP’s Aerobic Respiration = 36 ATP’s
Therefore, Aerobic respiration is more efficient than anaerobic respiration

28 The Carbon-Cycle

29 Glycolysis






35 Mitochondrion An oval membrane enclosed organelle in which most of the reactions of cellular respiration occur.

36 Aerobic Respiration (Net gain of ATP)
Glycolysis (2 ATP’s) Krebs Cycle (2 ATP’s) Electron Transport Chain (ETC) (32 ATP’s)

37 Nitrogen Cycle Nitrogen is needed by all living things because it is part of the structure of amino acids and proteins. The Nitrogen cycle includes the following reactions nitrogen-fixation, nitrification, ammonification, and denitrification. Humans have increased fixed nitrogen levels (smog, and acid rain HNO3 = Nitric acid)

38 Nitrogen Cycle In this cycle, nitrogenous wastes and the remains of dead organisms are converted by decomposers and soil bacteria into compounds that can be used by autotrophs. 5 steps Nitrogen fixation N2NH3 Nitrification NH3  NO2-  NO3- Assimilation N-based compounds into tissues Ammonification waste  NH3, NH+4, Denitrification (NH3, NO2-, NO3-)  N2

39 The Nitrogen Cycle N2 Urea NH3, (NO2-, NO3-)

40 Nitrogen Cycle

41 Nitrogen Cycle

42 Nitrogen fixation Occurs in Legumes Roots (clover) N2NH3
Ammonification:  NH3, NH+4, Ammonifying bacteria use animal wastes (urea and uric acid) Nitrification: bacteria convert NH3  NO2-  NO3- Denitrification: Bacteria convert (Anaerobic nitrifying Bacteria) NH3  N2 NO2-  N2 NO3-  N2

43 Nitrogen Cycle The Nitrogen cycle includes the following reactions:
1. Nitrogen Fixation: the conversion of N2 to NH3 (ammonia) by Nitrogen-fixing bacteria (Rhizobium in legume root nodules) as well as cyanobacteria (Anabaena & heterocysts). Nitrogen is “fixed” into a form that can be used. Bacteria use nitrogenase (shielded from O2) to split N2. Also lightning & volcanic activity.

44 Nitrogen Cycle 2. Nitrification: the conversion of ammonia NH3 or ammonium NH4+ to NO3-.(when water reacts with ammonia). Soil bacteria such as Nitrosomonas & Nitrococcus start NH3 or ammonium NH4+ to NO2- Then Nitrobacter oxidizes NO2- to NO3-.

45 Nitrogen Cycle 3. Assimilation: the conversion of inorganic N (NO3-, NH3, NH4+) to organic molecules (amino acids & proteins).

46 Nitrogen Cycle 4. Ammonification: the conversion of organic N (amino acids & proteins) to NH3 & NH4+, performed by Ammonifying bacteria. (Creating ammonia or ammonium) Conversion of Nitrogenous wastes:

47 Nitrogen Cycle

48 Nitrogen Cycle 5. Denitrification: the conversion (reduction) of NO3- to N2 performed by denitrifying bacteria.

49 The nitrogen cycle.

50 Nitrogen Cycle

51 The Nitrogen-Cycle

52 Do Now answer Explain the meaning of “nitrogen fixation.” Give a specific example of an organism capable of this process and discuss the relationship this organism has with plants.

53 Do Now answer Nitrogen fixation is the conversion of gaseous nitrogen to ammonia (NH3) by bacteria, Rhizobium, that live inside special swellings, or nodules on the roots of legumes such as beans or peas. The relationship is mutualistic. The bacteria receive carbohydrates from the plant, and the plant receives nitrogen in a form it can use.

54 The Phosphorus-Cycle Nongaseous phosphorus cycles from land to sediments in the ocean and then back to land. Phosphorus (P) is an essential nutrient for all life forms. Phosphorus plays a role in deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), ribonucleic acid (RNA), adenosine diphosphate (ADP), and adenosine triphosphate (ATP).

55 The Phosphorus-Cycle

56 The Phosphorus-Cycle

57 The Phosphorus-Cycle In freshwater and marine systems exists in either a particulate phase or a dissolved phase. Particulate matter includes living and dead plankton, precipitates of phosphorus, phosphorus adsorbed to particulates, and amorphous phosphorus. Dissolved phase includes inorganic phosphorus (generally in the soluble orthophosphate form), organic phosphorus excreted by organisms, and macromolecular colloidal phosphorus.

58 The Phosphorus-Cycle In freshwater and marine systems exists in either a particulate phase or a dissolved phase. Particulate matter includes living and dead plankton & precipitates of phosphorus.

59 The Phosphorus-Cycle

60 The Sulfur-Cycle


62 Hydrologic Cycle

63 Hydrologic Cycle

64 Hydrologic Cycle Here water moves between the earth’s surface and the atmosphere. Evaporation, Condensation, aerobic respiration and transpiration in plants. Estuaries are areas where fresh water meets marine areas. Watersheds are large areas where runoff drains from the terrestrial to the marine environments. These areas filter the water as well.

65 Hydrologic Cycle

66 The Hydrologic-Cycle The Effect of Aerosols?

67 DO NOW: Pick any one cycle and describe it as scientifically as possible….

68 DO NOW: Bacteria are key participants in the sulfur and nitrogen biogeochemical cycles. Briefly describe the role of oxygen in the various bacteria’s ability to process sulfur and nitrogen.

69 DO NOW: answers Bacteria drive both the sulfur and nitrogen cycles. In freshwater wetlands, tidal flats, and flooded soils, which are oxygen-deficient, bacteria convert sulfates to hydrogen sulfide gas, which is released into the atmosphere. Or the bacteria convert sulfates to metallic sulfides, which are deposited as rock. In the absence of oxygen, other bacteria perform an ancient type of photosynthesis that uses hydrogen sulfide instead of water. Where oxygen is present, different bacteria oxidize sulfur compounds to sulfates. Bacteria that reside in the root nodules of legume plants have the ability to convert gaseous nitrogen to ammonia. These nitrogen-fixing bacteria, including cyanobacteria and Rhizobium, employ the enzyme nitrogenase to split diatomic atmospheric nitrogen (N2) and combine the resulting single nitrogen atoms with hydrogen. Nitrogenase functions only in the absence of oxygen.

70 DO NOW: List and briefly explain three ways in which human activities are impacting the biogeochemical cycles

71 Some Human Effects on Biochemical Cycles
The burning of fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas release CO2 into the atmosphere at a rate greater than the carbon cycle can handle. This increase of carbon dioxide may contribute to global warming which could result in a rise in sea level, changes in precipitation patterns, death of forests, extinction of organisms and problems for agriculture. In addition, humans more than doubled the amount of fixed nitrogen entering the global nitrogen cycle in the 20th century through the use of chemical fertilizers. Precipitation washes nitrogen fertilizer into rivers, lakes and coastal waters stimulating the growth of algae. These algae die and their decomposition by bacteria robs the water of dissolved oxygen contributing to fish kills. The nitrates from fertilizer can also leach through the soil and contaminate groundwater used by many for drinking water. Humans affect the phosphorus cycle by accelerating the long-term loss of phosphorus from the land. For example, corn grown in Iowa (which contains phosphate absorbed from the soil), fattens cattle in Illinois (some phosphate ends up in feedlot wastes), which are eaten by humans in Texas (more phosphate in human wastes ending up in sewer systems). Sewage treatment rarely removes phosphorus and thus phosphorus washes into the ocean where it remains for millions of years.

72 II. Solar Radiation Most of the energy produced by the sun never reaches the Earth. 30% reflected into outerspace. 47% is absorbed by the atmoshpere. 23% runs the hydrologic cycle. Less than 1% drives the wind and the ocean currents. 0.02% is captured for photosynthesis. Energy then is lost as infrared radiation (reradiation).


74 The Sun Albedo: The reflective property of the Earth’s surface.
Caption and image courtesy of the Snowball Earth Web site: Ice albedo is a critical variable in snowball earth climate models: snow-covered ice has a high albedo (~0.9), bubble-free (mature) marine ice has relatively low albedo (~0.4) and bubble-rich glacial ice (compacted snow) has intermediate albedo (~0.65).

75 Glaciers and ice sheets reflect 80 to 90%
of the sunlight that hits their surfaces. Asphalt and buildings have low Albedos and reflect 10 –15%. Oceans and forests reflect only about 5%.

76 IIa. Temperature changes with latitude *Due to intensity

77 IIb. Temperature changes with seasons (23.5 degrees)

78 Layers of the Atmosphere
Troposhere: extends up to a height of approximately 10km (6.2mi). For every in the temperature-6˚C Weather occurs here Stratosphere: Mesosphere: Thermosphere Exosphere:

79 III. The Atmosphere Layers of the Atmosphere Atmospheric Circulation
Surface winds Coriolis Effect Prevailing winds Polar easterlies: North pole blow Northeast, South pole southwest Westerlies and trade wins Patterns of Circulation in the ocean Gyres and Currents Vertical Mixing of Ocean Water (density) Ocean Interactions width the Atmosphere EL NIÑO, LA NIÑA

80 Atmospheric Circulation
Winds: complex horizontal movements of the atmosphere.

81 Atmospheric Circulation

82 Atmospheric & Oceanic Circulation
Coriolis Effect: Earth’s rotation from West to East causes air/currents to swerve to the right of the direction in which its traveling in the northern hemisphere and to the left in the southern hemisphere. Human change of Earth’s rotation?

83 Patterns of Circulation in the ocean
Surface Ocean Currents Patterns of Circulation in the ocean Prevailing winds generate gyres (circular ocean patterns) Caused largely by winds and partly the coriolis effect. Main ocean currents flow: Northern Hemisphere- clockwise Southern Hemisphere – counter clock wise

84 Landmasses affect ocean circulation. Which is most unimpeded?
Southern Hemisphere Northern Hemisphere

85 Vertical Mixing of Ocean Water.
Ocean Conveyor Belt (Cold is denser then hot) Coriolis effect more pronounced at greater depths What happened ,000 years ago? Heat transfer issue??? Unintentional link between global warming and ocean conveyor belt

86 Vertical Mixing of Ocean Water.
Ocean Conveyor Belt

87 Do Now: What is an ENSO event and what causes it to occur? (provide more then a decrease in trade winds) Please include in your discussion: Define ENSO? What is oscillating? What effects does an ENSO event have on marine life? How does an ENSO even manage to have such far-reaching impact?

88 Do Now Answer: El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is a periodic, large-scale warming of surface waters of the eastern Pacific Ocean. This warming temporarily alters both ocean and atmospheric circulation patterns. Normally, westward-blowing trade winds confine the warmest waters to the western Pacific (near Australia). Every 3-7 years, however, these trade winds weaken allowing the warm mass of water to expand eastward to South America. The increasing surface temperatures in the East Pacific cause ocean currents, which normally flow westward in this area, to slow down, stop altogether, or even reverse and go eastward. The warmer surface ocean temperatures prevent upwelling of the nutrient-rich deep water. The lack of nutrients in the water results in a severe decrease in the populations of marine fish. ENSO has such a far-reaching impact because it alters global air currents, directing unusual weather to areas far from the tropical Pacific. ENSO have been responsible for torrential rains, droughts, wildfires, heavy snows, deaths and property damage.

89 EL NIÑO (ENSO) EL NIÑO Southern Oscillation event is a periodic warming of surface waters of the tropical East Pacific that alters both ocean & atmospheric circulation. Upwelling? LA NIÑA: surface water in the eastern Pacific becomes unusually cool.


91 Climate associated with ENSO

92 Coastal upwelling weakens during ENSO events.

93 Do Now: How does ENSO affect local fisheries?



96 Animation Of An Idealized El Niño/La Niña Cycle in the Pacific showing anomalies of sea-surface height (the grid in the animation) and anomalies of sea-surface temperature (the color of the grid). The weakening of trades in the western equatorial Pacific causes warm water in the upper layer of the equatorial region to move eastward, leading to higher sea level and warmer water in the eastern equatorial Pacific. The wave of higher sea level (called a Kelvin wave) reflects off South America, and returns to the west at latitudes north and south of the equator.

97 Do Now answers: Normally: Colder deep water is 40m (130ft) below surface causes upwelling in response to trade winds. ENSO: 152m (500ft) below surface The warmer surface temperatures and weak trade winds produce nutrient POOR waters devastating anchovies and other marine fisheries. Who now's who might be looking for food?????

98 ENSO flooding?

99 Climate: average weather conditions


101 DO NOW: Explain what is a rain shadow and how does it affect the local climate?

102 DO NOW: ANSWER The dry land on the side of a mountain, away from the prevailing wind, is a rain shadow. Rain shadows are formed because mountains force air to rise and remove moisture from humid air. The air cools as it rises, clouds form, and precipitation occurs. As the air mass moves down the other side of the mountain, it is warmed, thereby lessening the chance of precipitation of any remaining moisture. Deserts, characterized by lesser precipitation, tend form in this rain shadow of mountains.

103 Westcoast of America Rainshadow

104 Westcoast of America Rainshadow


106 Earth’s Core

107 Divergent: Movement apart

108 The Richter Scale                                                                                                                           

109 Transform/Plate boundary
Mt. Pinatubo Hotspot


111 Convergent/subduction


113 Transform Plate Boundary horizontally in opposite but // directions.

114 Transform Plate Boundary horizontally in opposite but // directions
Transform Plate Boundary horizontally in opposite but // directions. Ex: San Andreas fault

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